14K ever gets a silver run-up

Full version - Institute of Music Acoustics (Viennese sound style)

Full version - Institute of Music Acoustics (Viennese sound style)
University of Music and Performing Arts Vienna Silver, gold, platinum ... The material aspect of transverse flutes, performance and listening tests, surveys and sound analyzes. Ass. Mag. Dr. Matthias Bertsch Institute for Viennese Sound Style Vienna, May 2001 1 Foreword A big thank you for the help and support goes to all employees at the Institute for Viennese Sound Style, especially my supervisor Univ. Ass. Mag. Dr. Matthias Bertsch and Mr. Univ. Prof. Mag. Gregor Wiholm. All sound recordings, sound analyzes, listening tests, etc. were carried out in the IWK, since only there the respective devices and the corresponding rooms were available. In this context, I would like to thank the flutists: Maura Bayer, Dorit Führer, Rudolf Gindlhumer, Wolfgang Lindenthal, Matthias and Wolfgang Schulz (who also provided his instruments), who agreed to play along with the recordings. We would also like to thank all the flutists (15 people) who took part in the hearing test, as well as those who responded to my survey and provided information about their instrument (there were 111 people). Mr. Werner Tomasi provided many important documents, books and instruments and invested a few hours in discussions about his experiences and insights. The metal company Ögussa and the company Muramatsu also responded to inquiries and provided important information for this work. Thank you 2 Table of contents Foreword .............................................. .................................................. ..................................... 2 1. Introduction ......... .................................................. .................................................. ................ 5 2. Material and acoustics ............................ .................................................. ............................ 6 2.1 The metals (after Diebener 1929) ............. .................................................. ........................... 6 2.1.1 The precious metals ................. .................................................. .................................................. ... 6 Gold (Au) .......................................... .................................................. .......................................... 6 Silver (Ag) ... .................................................. .................................................. ................... .......... 6 platinum (Pt) ................................... .................................................. ................................................ 6 2.1 .2 The base metals .............................................. .................................................. .................... 7 copper ............................ .................................................. .................................................. ........... 7 Nickel ..................................... .................................................. .................................................. ... 7 zinc ............................................. .................................................. ................................................ 7 tin .................................................. .................................................. .......................................... 7 Cadmium ...... .................................................. ....................................... ....................................... 8 2.1.3 Gold and silver alloys .... .................................................. ................................................ 8 gold alloys .................................................. .................................................. ....................... 8 silver alloys ......................... .................................................. ........................................... 10 raw materials for construction of flutes ................................................ ........................... 11 2.1.4 Basic terms in metallurgy (based on Diebener 1929) ........... .............................................. 13 The hardness test. .................................................. .................................................. ................. 14 The tearing test .............................. .................................................. ................................... 15 The microscopic structure examination ................................................. ................................ 15 Deformation and heat treatment .............. .................................................. ......................... 22 The curing ...................... .................................................. ................................................. 22 2.2 Materials and their combination for transverse flutes ........................................... .................. 22 possible combinations of metals today ........................... .............................................. 23 Materials End of 19th century ............................................... ..................................... 23 2.3 The development of the flute in terms of material ... ................................................ 25 2.4 Acoustic aspects ................................................ .................................................. ............. 32 2.4.1 The influence of d the player's sound ............................................. ................................... The blowing pressure ............. .................................................. .................................................. ...... The lip opening .......................................... .................................................. ......................... The cover of the mouth hole ..................... .................................................. ........................ The influence of the blowing direction ...................... .................................................. ........................ The effects of vibrato in relation to the sound of the flute (after Meyer 1991) ............ ... 2.4.2 Other sound influences in relation to the instrument ..................................... ....................... attempt by Coltman 1971 (quoted in according to Sonneck) ............................................... ......................... 32 32 33 33 33 34 35 35 3. The experimental setup ............. .................................................. ........................................... 37 3.1 The players ... .................................................. .................................................. ..................... 37 3.2 The instruments ......................... .................................................. .......................................... 38 Silver Plated (VSI) ... .................................................. .................................................. ................... Silver (SI) ........................... .................................................. .................................................. ... Platinum-plated (VPT) ........................................... .................................................. ....................... 9 carats (9K) ...................... ................. .................................................. ..................................... 14 carats (14K) ........ .................................................. .................................................. .............. 24 carat (24K) ............................... .................................................. ......................................... Platinum (PT) ..... .................................................. .................................................. ........................ 38 38 38 38 39 39 39 3 3.3 The recording program ............... .................................................. ..................................... 41 3.4 Sound recording and processing ........ .................................................. ............................... 42 Recording sound samples ............... .................................................. ................................ Device settings ................. ................................................ ................................................. Digital Signal processing ................................................. .................................................. ... Snapshot documentation during the sound recording ......................................... ...... 42 43 43 44 4 Sound analyzes ...................................... .................................................. ............................. 45 5 Survey and hearing tests ................ .................................................. ...................................... 57 5.1 Survey to all flautists in the Vienna area ... .................................................. ........................ 57 Evaluation of material ....................... .................................................. ........................................ 63 Evaluation by flute company ...... .................................................. ........................................ 64 5.2 Hearing test ....... ............................ .................................................. .............................................. 65 5.2.1 Assignment of the instruments - (Hb hearing test) .......................................... ................................ 5.2.2 Evaluation of the sound description - (hearing test Hc) ....... .................................................. .... Flute A = silver .......................................... .................................................. ............................. flute B = 24 carats ................ .................................................. .................................................. Flute C = platinum .............................................. .................................................. ........................ flute D = 14 carats ..................... .................................................. ............................................ Flute E = 9 carats. .................................................. ............................................. ...................... Flute F = silver-plated ........................ .................................................. ......................................... flute G = platinum-plated ..... .................................................. .................................................. ..... Summary of the grades in the listening test ........................................ ................................. 5.2.3 Comparison of “prejudice” (Ha) and hearing test statements (Hc) ........................................ 5.2.4 Assessment of the 7 test instruments by the players .................................................. ........... 65 74 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 84 6 Summary ......................... .................................................. ................................... 85 7 Bibliography ............ .................................................. ............................................. 87 8 Appendix .. ................................................. .................................................. ............................ 88 CV .................... .................................................. .................................................. ...... 95 4 1. Introduction In short, the instruments are referred to as silver flutes or gold flutes and, for some time now, also of platinum flutes. However, it is not mentioned that none of the instruments is 100% made of the respective material, but rather that they are mostly alloys. It is therefore very interesting to find out about the materials, their occurrence or origin and properties. But above all about the exact components of those metals that are used today for the construction of transverse flutes. As mentioned earlier, silver, gold and platinum are the three most common metals used in the manufacture of transverse flutes. Although it is known that it was made of wood in the past and is therefore one of the woodwind instruments, the modern flute is now mainly made of metal. One must add, however, that there is renewed interest in wooden flutes with metal mechanics and, due to the further development, these are again competing with metal flutes. Since most flutists are often not sure which material to choose when buying a new instrument, I felt the need to investigate or to find out whether it is actually worthwhile to buy 300,000 to 1,000 for a flute .000 Schillings to spend when there are instruments for 50.00 to 150,000 Schillings, which are just as very good. I turned to the Institute for Viennese Sound Style, IWK for short, and was received by Mr. Univ. Ass. Mag. Dr. Matthias Bertsch looks after during my work. We agreed to make recordings (7 flutists, 7 different flutes depending on the material) and then analyze them in more detail. Several flutists made themselves available to listen to the hearing tests and tried to hear out possible differences in relation to the sound of the instrument. In addition, the sound was represented by means of digital sound analyzes in spectral images in order to possibly recognize the different metals of the recorded flutes in this way. We also decided to work out a survey that would provide information on the material of the flutes played by Viennese musicians (professionals, students and amateurs). It also seemed important to me to learn more about metals and to go into more detail in this work in a chapter. To do this, I worked on a “workshop book for practice”, an important textbook for goldsmiths. I also devoted a chapter to the development of the flute in relation to the material. 5 2. Material and acoustics 2.1 The metals (after Diebener 1929) 2.1.1 The precious metals gold (Au) was first found in the 5th millennium BC. Objects and jewelry made of gold date from the first millennium BC. The deposits are mainly in South Africa, North America and Russia. This noble metal is found as fine grains and tinsel in other rocks and ores or in a mixture with gravel and sand. The color is defined as "shiny yellow". The melting point is 1063 ° C and the boiling point is approx. 2950 ° C. Since it is a very soft metal, it was alloyed with copper and silver from ancient times, which made it harder and changed its color: with silver it became paler and lighter, with copper it was more reddish and darker. Silver (Ag) is extracted from the most important silver ore, the silver luster argenite, and has a melting point of 960 ° C and a boiling point of 2180 ° C. Mainly, however, silver results from the very low silver content of the ores of base metals such as lead, zinc, copper and nickel ores. When they are smelted, silver is a by-product, so to speak. Large silver deposits can be found in Mexico (a third of all mining in America) but also in Germany. The "white, splendidly shiny" metal has the highest conductivity for heat and electricity. It is usually alloyed with copper. Since it combines easily with sulfur and sulfur bonds, silver alloys tarnish when exposed to volatile sulfides. It turns black when it comes into contact with sulfur-containing protein. Platinum (Pt) occurs naturally in a dignified manner, in society with the five other platinum metals palladium, rhodium, irridium, ruthenium and osmium. It used to be considered a worthless variety of silver, but is now the goldsmith's most expensive material. Platinum is found mainly in the Urals and Colombia. However, for about two decades, when the smelting of South African and Canadian nickel and copper ores produced significant amounts of platinum metals, their importance has declined dramatically. It has its melting point at 1773.5 ° C, the boiling point at approx. 4400 ° C. The high melting point requires a special melting and casting technique. The goldsmith describes the color: gray-white, with a bluish tinge. In its pure state, platinum is as soft as copper and can therefore be rolled into thin sheets, hammered into foils and drawn into thin wires. There are five different platinum metals: Palladium (gray-white) is the cheapest platinum metal and is used as an additive to white gold. Rhodium (silver-white) is not attacked by any acid and is therefore used in silver goods to prevent tarnishing. Iridium (light gray) is the hardest platinum metal. It is used as an additive to platinum to increase hardness. Osmium (gray-white, shimmering bluish) is very brittle. There is no particular application for this. 6 2.1.2 The base metals Copper is the most important base metal. It is mined from various copper ores (especially copper pies, copper luster and red copper ore) and is used as an additive for almost all gold and silver alloys. In combination with other metals, the reddish copper mainly influences the color, depending on how high the copper content is. The most important occurrence in Germany is the Mansfeld copper shale, which in addition to small amounts of silver contains around 3% copper as copper pyrites.The copper can easily be extracted from some of the ores by reduction with coal. Since the metal is also the bearer of the name of an epoch of mankind (Copper Age), it is considered the oldest utility metal. Copper alloys are: brass (= copper and zinc), tombac (also copper and zinc, whereby the zinc content is much lower than in brass) and bronze (= copper and tin), which is mainly used for the manufacture of weapons, tools and church bells (due to good meltability) is used. The melting point of copper is 1086 ° C, the boiling point is 2600 ° C. Nickel is a white-yellowish metal and makes a structure harder. Combined with iron, it occurs in meteorites. The melting point is 1455 ° C, the boiling point is 2730 ° C. As a pure metal, nickel has found only a few areas of application; as an alloy metal of steels, however, it has gained tremendous importance. The hard white gold, which is important for the goldsmith, owes its color to an addition of nickel. Nickel is particularly often contained in magnetic gravel (locations: Canada, Sweden, Norway, Italy, etc.). Zinc has its melting point at 419.5 °, the boiling point at 906 ° Celsius. It is mainly obtained from the zinc ores zinc blende and zinc spar. The metal is bluish-white. It oxidizes easily in humid air with the formation of basic carbonate, which acts as an adherent layer and protects against further changes. Zinc dissolves easily in acids and alkalis. In the cold, the metal is relatively brittle, but at 120 ° to 150 ° it can be easily deformed. If zinc is heated strongly in the presence of air, it burns to a white smoke of zinc oxide. It is used as an alloy additive in the manufacture of brass and tombac; Large quantities are also used in the hot-dip galvanizing of sheet iron. A wide variety of machine parts are also produced from zinc and its alloys by injection molding. Most gold and silver solders contain zinc; zinc is also added to eight-carat gold alloys. The so-called nickel silver is created by combining copper, zinc and nickel and is a cheap substitute for silver. It is characterized by hardness and corrosion resistance. It is mainly used to manufacture cutlery, medical devices and musical instruments. Usually there is also a galvanic silver plating over it. Tin is a silver-white metal that retains its luster even in humid air and can be easily deformed and rolled or hammered into thin foils. The most important ore is tin stone, from which the metal is extracted by reduction with coal in a flame furnace. The vast majority of the ore deposits are in the East Indies, Banka and Bolivia. In 7 earlier times, pewter was used to make plates, jugs, mugs and other dishes, but above all organ pipes. Today the pewter foundry only plays a modest role. The melting point is 232 °, the boiling point 2270 ° Celsius. Cadmium The white metal, the ores of which are found in nature as a companion to zinc minerals, resembles zinc in terms of its behavior. When heated in air, it burns off with the formation of a brown smoke. Cadmium is used as an additive in gold and silver solders that are supposed to have a low melting point. Cadmium is also commonly added to silver alloys that are required for deep-drawing work. The melting point is 232 °, the boiling point 2270 ° Celsius. 2.1.3 Gold and silver alloys Fine gold and fine silver (i.e. pure metals, without additives) are unsuitable for processing because they have too little strength in this state. They are therefore fused together with other metals. The union of several metals by melting is called an alloy. In addition, the alloy serves to change the color and to make the respective products cheaper. Main additional metals for precious metal alloys are: copper, brass, bronze and zinc. It is very easy to make gold alloys in large numbers of colors (from the deepest dark red-yellow to light pale yellow). In the case of silver, there is only a slight change when combined with copper. Extreme caution is required when heating the metals, otherwise the metals may oxidize and evaporate. Gold, for example, evaporates at a temperature of over 1100 ° C, especially in the presence of copper. Exact knowledge of the work metals is therefore necessary in order to know about the respective chemical reactions. The quantity ratio of an alloy is given in hundred parts (percent) and in the case of precious metals in thousands. The proportion of precious metal is called the fineness, whereby the silver content is not taken into account in the case of gold alloys. Gold was (still today) given in carats, silver in plumb bobs. E.g. 24 carat gold = 1000 thousand parts 14 carat gold = 583, 33 thousand parts etc. 16 lot of silver = 1000 thousand parts gold alloys Gold alloys consist mainly of copper, fine silver and fine gold. The combination of these precious and base metals serves to change the hardness, enables a broader color spectrum and offers the possibility of changing the value of the objects, i.e. making them cheaper or more expensive, depending on the gold content. With the exception of white gold, 18 and 14 carat gold is always alloyed from the three base metals: fine gold, fine silver and copper. The 8-carat gold can also be made in this way, but it is often preferred to use a master alloy called bronze in order to achieve a more gold-like color. Palladium - a platinum metal - is again used to make the gold-silver alloys with a lower gold content tarnish-resistant. For dental purposes, for example, platinum is added to the three base metals, which changes the hardness. 8 Here is a table of the tried and tested gold alloys, as they are mainly used by goldsmiths. Since transverse flutes are also made of such gold alloys, it is interesting to see what the alloys are made of in detail and what color nuances are created from them. Fig. 2/1 (Diebener p. 102) The table below shows a number of alloy recipes to which the most important properties are attached. It can be read from this which alloy should be selected for a specific job. The composition of the white gold and colored gold alloys in this table should of course not be understood as fixed recipes, but as examples that can be changed in many ways. It is mainly intended to show to what extent the goldsmith and indeed the instrument maker can change his material in terms of thermal and mechanical properties and thus create or obtain the most suitable alloy for his particular purpose. Fig. 2/2 (Diebener p. 107) 9 The possibilities of influencing the color are completely different apart from the “reddish”. The table below shows the different colors in which gold alloys can be produced. Fig. 2/3 (Diebener p. 103) Silver alloys Due to its low hardness, pure silver is just as unsuitable for the manufacture of devices, jewelry and instruments that are exposed to wear and tear, as is pure gold. It is therefore also alloyed with base metals, which considerably increases strength and hardness. In instrument construction, silver alloys consist of silver and copper. The blacksmith also alloyed silver with other base metals such as zinc or cadmium. It goes without saying that perfect alloys can only be achieved with absolutely pure metals, because although the two-component system silver-copper has been researched quite extensively by numerous metallographic work in the last two decades, and the results of this work are also generally known, the Production of silver-copper alloys in the precious metal industry still has difficulties today. Here again all possible silver alloys and their properties are listed in a table: Fig. 2/4 (Diebener p.110) 10 Raw materials for the construction of transverse flutes A conversation with Dipl. Ing. Raabe, metallurgist of the metal company Ögussa, gave Information about the metals that are mainly made available for the construction of instruments. As already mentioned, no instrument - not even the 24-carat gold flute - is made 100% of the pure metal. The 24 carat flute is made of 99.9% pure gold; the remaining, in this case a small percentage, is another additive, for example calcium! The 14 carat flute consists of 58.5% gold, 25% silver, 15% copper and a small amount of zinc. The 9 carat flute consists of 37. 5% gold, 9% silver, 49% copper, the rest is again zinc. The addition of zinc is generally not specified and was only given to me by the Ögussa company. Likewise, the addition of calcium to the 24-carat gold flute is usually kept secret and, like many other things, is kept as the “secret of the instrument maker”. The so-called 925 silver is used to build a silver flute. It is an alloy of 92.5% silver and 7.5% copper. Platinum is not the pure metal either. Either you add 95% platinum and 5% tungsten to increase the hardness, or you add 5% cobalt instead of tungsten, which makes an object easy to cast. You can also alloy platinum with gold. No information could be given to me as to which additive is now used for the construction of transverse flutes. Silver-plating, gold-plating and platinum-plating are done in the form of galvanization. That is, a metal layer is applied electrolytically (in an acid) to an object. Basically the following materials are made available to the flute maker: 925 silver = the so-called sterling silver 375/000 gold (9 carat) 585/000 gold (14 carat) 750/000 gold (18 carat) 999/000 gold (24 carat) 11 Die Flute company Muramatsu gave similar, but unfortunately no detailed information about the materials they use for their instruments: Concerning the flute material, please understand that the percentage of each metal for flute material is the top secret. So we can not tell you the precise percentage. But we can tell you about the general metals for each material: Nickel silver is an alloy of nickel, copper and zinc. The specific gravity of nickel silver is 8.5. Silver is an alloy of silver and copper. Our silver flute is AG 925 () sterling silver) and the specific gravity is 10.5. Gold flute is an alloy of gold, silver and copper. 9K is 9/24 (37.5% gold), 14K is 14/24 (58.3% gold), 18K is 18/24 (75% gold), 24K is 24/24 (100% gold). Depends on the content of silver or copper, the color of gold changes. The specific gravity of 14K is 13.0, of 18K is 15.5, of 24K is 19.3. Mr. Werner Tomasi gave the following information about the alloys in flutes: Silver (Ag) is used in the following strengths: 800, 900, 925 - so-called sterling silver, 958 - called Britannia, 998.5. These figures correspond to the percentage of silver in this alloy. Ex. 800: means that 80% of the metal is pure silver, but 20% is other metals. See in the Materials chapter. Gold (Au) is available as 5K, 8K, 9K, 10K, 14K, 18K, 22K and 24Karat alloys. It should be mentioned that the 24 carat gold flute lacks a thousandth of a percentage (in the per mille range) of 100% gold and this proportion will remain a trade secret of many flute companies (see chapter "Raw materials for the construction of transverse flutes", p.10, 11) . Pure gold would be too soft - so the statements of the metal companies. 12 2.1.4 Basic metal science terms (based on Diebener 1929) Metals and alloys differ from non-metallic materials in a number of properties. A particularly noticeable characteristic of metals is their gloss, which is due to the fact that metallic surfaces can reflect light rays to a high degree. The high strength of the metals, combined with the ability to withstand extensive deformations without breaking, is another essential distinguishing feature that clearly expresses the superiority of metals over all other materials. Wood and stone can only be processed and shaped by grinding, splitting off or chipping off parts. Metals can be stretched, compressed, stretched, bent and twisted. They are accessible to a wide variety of deformations, and the initial shape can be selected as desired within wide limits. The metals also have excellent electrical conductivity and considerable heat conductivity. It should also be mentioned that all metals and alloys are built up from crystals in a solid state. It was only about 70 to 80 years ago, according to Diebener1929, that scientific metallurgy began, which provided knowledge about the structure of metals and their relationships to one another. In the past, experiences with processing metals were only passed on orally. Only the initiated could forge a sword or create fine jewelry. The processing rules and treatment regulations resulted from observations and experiments without the generally valid relationships on which they are based being recognized. The development of new working methods and the discovery of new alloys were therefore left to chance. But now the prerequisites for scientific research into metals are in place. Chemical analysis makes it possible to determine the composition of an alloy. With the help of the microscope it was recognized that metals and alloys consist of small crystal grains and that there are various ways of forming alloys. The laws of physical chemistry were used to clarify the behavior of the metals in relation to one another and to define the dependence of the alloys on temperature and pressure in state diagrams. The strength properties could be determined using physical methods. An important aid in metallurgy was found in the X-rays, which allowed an insight into the laws according to which the structure of metals from individual atoms takes place. Around 50 years ago, in addition to the tried and tested colored gold alloys, white gold appeared as a new material that was developed in laboratories. There were also platinum metals and their alloys. The influence of impurities has been examined in detail, thus showing the way to overcome difficulties and avoid errors. The properties of the alloys have been numerically recorded so that the material can be selected according to the requirements it is subjected to during processing and use. Therefore one has to know exactly about the properties of metals and their alloys. There are very different demands on the material, depending on whether it is to be used for frames, rings, chains, enamelling, small devices, watch cases and instruments. There are hardness tests, tensile tests, microscopic structural tests, tests for heat, deformation, elasticity, determination of the melting and boiling point, the fineness, the color, etc. 13 The hardness test hardness is the resistance that one body opposes the penetration of another. The measurement process results from this definition: A very hard, geometrically simple body is pressed into the sample with a certain load and the impression, which is greater the softer the material, is measured. In the Brinell method, a hardened steel ball is used as the indenter; in the Vickers method, a diamond pyramid is used to create the indentation. The surface in qmm can be calculated from the diameter or the diagonals of the impression. The pure metals have a relatively low hardness in their soft-annealed condition. The Brinell hardness of fine gold and fine silver is only around 20 to 25 kg per square millimeter. In the case of platinum and palladium, it is around 45 kg per square millimeter. In the case of alloys, the hardness is much higher. This means that if you alloy pure metals such as gold and platinum, which are very soft in their raw state, they become harder. For the instrument maker, the hardness of the material naturally plays a very important role and its shape can also influence the sound. Dipl. Ing. Raabe von der Ögussa sent me the following table, especially to consider the hardness: Fig. 2/5 14 The tear test When machining metals, the question inevitably arises as to which stresses the material can be exposed to without to break or change shape in an unreliable manner. One answer to this is the so-called tear test. The microscopic examination of the structure Metals and alloys are all crystalline. The crystals can only be observed with the naked eye in individual cases, e.g. on galvanized sheet iron. The surface shows numerous differently tinted fields and surfaces that sometimes look like ice flowers. The crystalline structure of metals and alloys can only be seen after special pre-treatment under the microscope: You have to make a sample scratch-free by grinding, filing, polishing, etc., then you move on to "etching".To develop the structure on the now flat, reflective surface of the "cut", the sample is dipped in salt and acid solutions or dabbed with a cotton ball soaked in the solution. The etching liquid attacks the boundaries of the crystals. When viewed under a metal microscope, dark lines stand out, but they are by no means straight, as one would expect from crystal boundaries. This is due to the fact that when a molten metal solidifies, small crystallization nuclei are initially formed, which grow naturally along the crystal axes until they come into contact with a neighboring crystal and are thus prevented from further growth. So it happens that the "crystals" do not show any clear crystal forms, but completely irregular interfaces, which depend on the randomness of the growth conditions. The irregular corpuscles are called "crystallites" or "grains". With longer etching, the individual crystallites, even if they have completely the same composition, are attacked and roughened to different degrees. Under the microscope, individual grains appear as bright as a mirror, while others appear gray or black. This "grain surface etching" is based on the fact that the crystal axes of the individual grains are aligned differently. Since the properties of a crystal differ in the individual axis directions, the speed at which the etching solution attacks also changes. Dilute, hot aqua regia or a mixture of solutions of potassium cyanide and ammonium persulfate in water are particularly suitable as etchants for developing the structure of gold alloys. Chromosulfuric acid has proven its worth in silver alloys. In addition to the microscopic observation of the structure, the examination of the metals and alloys with X-rays provided further evidence of the crystalline structure. It was found that the individual metal atoms of the crystal lie on straight lines at regular intervals. The individual straight lines form planes. The structure made up of the levels with the regularly arranged rows of atoms is called the "space lattice". For all crystalline bodies, be it metal or salt crystals, the lattice-like arrangement of the atoms is characteristic. 15 Fig. 2/6 some examples of the structure of an alloy (Diebener p. 56,57) The microscopic examination of the structure together with the thermal analysis gives a very clear picture of the structure of the alloys. 16 Mr. Werner Tomasi sent several samples of flute materials (J. Hammig, B. Cooper 502, B. Cooper Federe, Takumi 900 Ag, 925 J. R: Lafin, Haynes) to the Institute for Metallurgy and Materials Testing of the Montan University Leoben and the results with regard to the damping behavior of the metals. It has been found that the samples with low hardness values ​​dampen more than those with high hardness values ​​and that a light tone color should occur in individual samples due to the deformation. Mr. Werner Tomasi has detailed illustrations and descriptions, he was so kind and passed these very valuable results on to me. Two further samples with the names "Hammig" and "Altus" (both names of the flute companies) were also examined by the Montan University. The results are briefly summarized here: Longitudinal sections were made of both samples in order to be able to recognize the crystal structure. The micro-hardness was also measured and the composition of the matrix (structure) but also of precipitates was determined in an energy-dispersive manner (with X-rays). The structure of the "Hammig" sample is recorded in the unetched and etched (with sodium sulfate and chromic acid) state in the following tables. Here you can see an undeformed, recrystallized structure with grain sizes of 20-80 µm. The energy-dispersive analyzes in the scanning electron microscope showed that the unetched Hammig sample is enlarged 1000 times here (Institute for Metallurgy and Materials Testing Monta n University Leoben). In fact, there are no structures visible, only impurities. Fig. 2/8: 500-fold enlargement of a scanning electron microscope picture of silver cut "Silver crystals of a recrystallized structure", performed on a flute by J. Hammig (Montanuniv, Leoben). The structure is clearly visible. 17 Fig. 2/9 Sample Hammig etched magnified 1000 times. (Montanuniv. Leoben) deals with silver and copper. The “Altus” sample shows a completely different structure. The structure is badly deformed, which is particularly evident in the etchings with sodium sulfate and chromic acid. It is difficult to specify a grain size here, as it is much smaller due to the deformation. Fig. 2/10 Sample Altus, unetched, enlarged 1000 times. (Montanuniv. Leoben) Fig. 2/11 Altus sample etched with sodium sulfate and chromic acid. Magnified 1000 times (Montanuniv. Leoben) 18 than in the "Hammig" sample. The "Altus" sample also shows that the copper content is much higher. The micro-hardness of both samples was determined by recording a Mayer straight line. The “Altus” sample (11.85 kp / mm2) is much harder than the “Hammig” sample (10.5 kp / mm2), this also agrees with the light microscopic structural examinations which - as already mentioned - for the sample “ Altus ”showed a deformed structure, while the“ Hammig ”sample showed a recrystallized structure. Fig. 2/12 Mayer straight lines and micro-hardness of samples Hammig and Altus (Montanuniv. Leoben). The Altus sample proves to be harder - in contrast to the Hammig sample. With the help of energy-dispersive analyzes in the scanning electron microscope, the composition of the matrix can be seen. Based on element distribution analyzes, it can be seen that the Hammig sample consists of silver and copper. (see Fig. 2/13 and 2/14) In summary, it can be stated that the two samples "Hammig" and "Altus" differ very clearly in their structure, hardness and chemical composition. Due to the greater hardness and the deformed structure, it could be determined that the material of the "Altus" sample is less damping than the material of the Hammig sample. 19 Fig. 2/13 EDX analysis of the Hammig sample (Montanuniv. Leoben) Fig. 2/14 EDX analysis of the Altus sample (Montanuniv. Leoben) 20 The Altus sample shows that it has a significantly higher copper content than the Hammig sample . Investigation Tomasi & Ögussa Another investigation of the structure of some flute materials was carried out by the metal company Ögussa on behalf of Mr. Werner Tomasi. The results are clearly presented in this table. The information relating to the sound of the respective instrument is particularly interesting. Tanaka is a supplier of flute reeds to the companies Muramatsu, Sankyo, Tomasi etc. Other suppliers are not listed here by name (= general). Fig. 2/15 Structure of flute materials and its effect on the sound (Ögussa and Tomasi) 21 Deformation and heat treatment All metallic materials solidify to a considerable extent when deformed by rolling, pressing, etc. Their hardness, tensile strength and yield point increase, the elongation decreases. Deformation also changes the structure. For example, a high annealing temperature produces larger grains than a lower one, which produces a finer structure. "Tensioning" the metal increases the strength properties. This deformation hardness that is still applied has an advantageous effect on the wear behavior. Fig. 2/16 Structure of a 14-carat gold alloy rolled by 50%. (Diebener p.58) Hardening The hardening process shows us a way in which the strength properties of a precious metal alloy can be improved. However, this is sometimes only used in dental technology. 2.2 Materials and their combination in transverse flutes In principle, the precious metals silver, gold and platinum are used, most of which are used in the form of alloys for the construction of the instruments. See chapter "The Metals". Metals all have different properties in terms of hardness, boiling point, etc. In the opinion of the flute makers, these factors have an impact on how the sound of an instrument, which is subject to a lot of other influences, can be. There is now a lot of variation in terms of the material. With gold tubes, for example, the mechanism can be made of the same material as the tube or made of silver (this can, however, be gilded again - for optical reasons as well as for sound reasons). Some flautists are advocates of instruments that are all made of the same metal. You will find that these instruments sound optimally. Due to the various possible combinations, however, the flute makers see themselves as being able to try out all the variations and find out what can now represent a possible influence on the sound. For many, however, it is also a financial question whether they also want the mechanics made of silver or gold. 22 Possible combinations of metals today Four parts of the flute head can be made of different materials: chimney, mouth plate, pipe, crown The chimney, i.e. the connecting piece between the mouth plate and the pipe, usually consists of the highest quality material of the flute. That means, for example, on a 14 carat gold flute, the chimney is made of at least the same or an even more valuable material than the entire instrument. One attaches the greatest importance to this point, since this is where the sound is generated. The second most important component of the head in relation to the material is the mouth plate, only then does the pipe and the crown (= decorative screw or head end) follow. There are only three different ways of combining the material on the body of the flute: pipe, mechanism, chimney The metal of the Rohres does not have to be the same as the mechanics. The chimneys can also have a different material. Drawn chimneys are only made from the material of the pipe. However, soldered parts can also be made of a different material. Materials at the end of the 19th century Even earlier attempts were made to combine several materials for the instruments: For example an instrument from 1860: the body and mechanism are made of Maillechord (the name is derived from the names of the inventors of the metal alloy Maillot and Chorier) . This alloy was a popular material among French flute makers in the 19th century, and was preferred to silver by many flautists because of its very bright, overtone-rich sound. According to Larousse, Maillechord possesses the qualities of "luminosity, suppleness and sonority" of silver; it is easy to edit. Its average composition: 20% nickel, 22% tin and 58% copper. The tuning is 438 Hz. The mouth plate is made of ebony and connected to the pipe by a silver chimney. Fig. 2/17 Louis Lot: Cylinder flute from Maillechord, Paris, around 1860 This flute also has the combination of ring keys and perforated lid keys as a special feature. With this idea of ​​using ring keys in the construction of metal flutes, Louis Lot was way ahead of his colleagues. 23 Or an instrument from 1876 with a combination of wood and silver, etc. This cylindrical flute is made of strongly flamed, reddish-brown coconut wood. The mechanism and mouth plate, which is richly decorated with floral patterns, are made of silver. The H-foot is striking. Tuning 448 Hz. Fig. 2/18 Louis Lot: Cylindrical flute made of coconut wood, Paris 1876 The next flute dates from 1851 and was built by Th. Boehm. They have been shown without mechanics to illustrate the tone hole diameter. In this case it is mentioned because of the combination of silver and gold. The flute reed and head joint are made of silver, the mouth plate of gold. Fig. 2/19 Silver flute with gold mouthplate 1851, without mechanics - Boehm (Lenski and Ventzke) All these attempts to combine materials had both tonal and optical reasons. In “The Golden Age of the Flute” by Karl Lensky & Karl Ventzke, a conversation with Peter Lukas Graf is recorded in which he talks about the deceased flute masters Le Roy, Gaubert and Moyse. He thinks that today the peculiarity of the flautists of that time is lost and everything sounds more or less the same. Sometimes he got the impression that there is only one principle in modern flute construction, namely that of volume. He finds this particularly dangerous, because it stands in the way of any individual and artistic expression. 24 2.3 The development of the transverse flute in relation to the material (after Dullat 1990) Fig. 2/20 (Quantz: 1752. p. 29) The innovations in instrument construction in the early baroque - mainly originating in France - helped the transverse flute in a relatively short time To step out of the shadow of the recorder and to advance to a lover and orchestral instrument. It has therefore undergone a multitude of changes in just 50 years. In addition to the gradual addition of individual keys, the idea of ​​making them out of several parts, the attempt to achieve the best possible spacing of the tone holes through mathematical calculations, the material of the instrument and the associated effects on the sound were also dealt with . In the 17th century, plum, cherry, boxwood, ebony and grenadilla were preferred. At first glance, it can be assumed that ebony or boxwood are the best materials. Which of these two deserves preference over the other can hardly be decided with certainty; only one thing is beyond doubt that ebony gives the tone more strength, but boxwood more loveliness, and that the former hardly pulls itself at all, but breaks all the more easily, while with the latter the reverse is the case. . . . (A. B. Fürstenau: The art of playing the flute in a theoretical-practical relationship. Leipzig undated) Magnificent specimens, which were primarily used for representation, were made from porcelain, amber, agate, ivory, marble and crystal glass. Distinctive bead profiles and strong rings are typical of the flutes built around 1700; They not only have a decorative effect, but also protect against the dreaded tearing at the same time and often serve as "natural" flap supports. 25 Fig. 2/21 (Quantz: 1752. p. 41) 26 If you look at the history of flute making, the flute makers occupied themselves intensively with improving the intonation by adding more and more keys. The focus was also on the bore, the position and size of the tone holes, the tuning cork and the mouth hole, which already had an astonishing number of variants in the mid-18th century and in a certain way anticipated the “reform mouthpiece” introduced much later as a prototype. Further developments and "inventions" were generally announced and discussed verbatim in specialist publications. In Günter Dullat's book on woodwind instrument making, all possible records relating to the development of the flute are collected. Especially those of English, French and German flute makers: Johann Heinrich Lambert (1728 - 1777) and his "Observations on the Flute" P. Hamelin-Bergeron "Flutes et Flagolet" H. W Pottgiesser (1766 - 1829) and his comments on the flute building Flute construction and British patents before 1832 A French patent for glass flutes Since this is the first time that reference is made to the use of a certain material and not just to changes in the mechanics, this French patent for glass flutes is discussed in more detail. Laurent Claude justifies the use of glass flutes in his patent application with the fact that this material is not so susceptible to the wood or ivory that is otherwise used when there are air fluctuations and temperature differences. The advantages that the glass flute brought with it through improved intonation options were largely nullified due to its relatively high weight. It was therefore more of a luxury instrument that was primarily aimed at representation. In connection with the glass flute, Laurent is often mentioned as the first instrument maker (actually he was a watchmaker) who used steel springs and the column mount on his instruments. Fig. 2/22 Flute made of crystal glass (Lensky and Ventzke) A committee made up of the members of the Imperial Conservatory of Music compared the crystal glass flute made by the watchmaker Laurent with other excellent flutes that were customary up to now: The samples were taken at different degrees of Temperature - from 5 to 6 degrees above the zero point of the Reaumürschen thermometer up to the strongest heat of a fireplace - and it turned out that the glass instrument did not change the tone, even with the quickest change from warmth to cold and just as little with the gradual one Transitions from one extreme to the other suffered. Flutes made of wood and ivory cannot endure this test; who doesn't dare to see them jump. It also changes their tone considerably.Upon further examination of this flute, the commissioners found: that Herr Laurent's flute was easier to play, although it is a little harder to hold than other instruments of this kind; that it does not give a larger volume of tones than wooden or ivory flutes, but pronounces the tones more lively, purer and more uniformly. (Quote, based on Dullat 1990) The flute maker who most influenced our flute today and whose system has been adopted and developed to this day was Theobald Boehm (1794–1881). He created the principle for the development of a new type of flute - Boehm's ring flute from 1832. The knowledge he made during a concert tour to Paris and London in 1831 prompted him to build this "newly constructed flute". For him - he gave up his “goldworker business” in 1818 and, as a royal court musician, devoted himself entirely to playing the flute - the flute could not be entirely satisfactory in its conception at the time. Since the instruments that he had made for himself never met his expectations, he decided to set up a "flute factory" himself. His goal was to improve the flutes in several ways: 1. Purity of intonation 2. Equality of notes 3. Ease of handling 4. Safe response to both the highest and lowest notes 5. Beautiful shape 6. Pure and solid work This " Newly constructed flute ”he presented to the Academy of Sciences in Paris in 1837, which resulted in the Parisian flutists adopting this system and this instrument, the system being adopted and further developed by the local flute makers. Böhm spent most of his time developing and subsequently improving the valve design. For this he developed a new fingering, dealt with the drilling, calculated the air column length, varied the shape of the mouth hole, looked for a suitable position for the cork near the mouth hole, experimented with the size and location of the tone holes and devoted himself briefly, but also the material in a separate chapter. 28 Fig. 2/23 Theobald Boehm's statements about the material (Boehm. 1871, p.9) It is interesting that about 150 years ago, in principle, one already had almost the same knowledge with which the pros and cons are still today with regard to a possible influence of the material on address, timbre and / or quality of the tones is discussed. Due to his many years of experience as an ironworks technician, he certainly had a technological knowledge like no other woodwind instrument maker of his time; it enabled him to make a sensible and at the same time promising material selection based on a wide variety of criteria. The silver flute he propagated was made by various manufacturers in France as well as in England. Despite his very precise information about the alloys he used, it has basically remained a secret to this day (at least a scientific analysis is still missing) as to where the real advantages of this silver flute lie. It is certainly correct to state that the hardness and the thin pipe wall at the same time represent one or perhaps also the decisive characteristic. However, it is doubtful whether a “hard-drawn tube” (this term would surely be replaced by “cold-formed tube” today) has the same technical properties as a tube that was manufactured by hand. 29 However, if it is a metallic base material, one should not apply excessively high value standards when assessing the quality. Instrument-specific design features such as keyhole spacing, keyhole widths and heights, scale length, etc. are decisive for everything that we nowadays extensively describe with the terms "response", "modulation ability", "mood", "quality" and "timbre" so that it is not for nothing that these factors have mainly been devoted to improving the sound quality. In 1847 Boehm received a trade privilege in Munich and increasingly turned to flute making in his own workshop. He sold his new inventions to the English instrument manufacturer Rudall & Rose, which in turn took out a patent on co-owner J. M. Rose on September 6 of the same year. Reproduction licenses are soon granted to the French company Godefroy & Lot. The British patent contains three main points relating to the modified Boehm flute. One of them refers to the material and should be mentioned here: The instrument (also clarinets or similar instruments) is made of metal. This has the advantage that the tone is improved and the headjoint does not tear as easily as is often the case with wooden flutes that are played in warmer areas. Flutes made of gold or silver are preferred to those made of simpler material such as brass or those with a silver-plated inner tube. Although the conical ring-key flute enjoyed steadily growing popularity, especially in England and France, where it was copied in slightly modified form by several manufacturers, Boehm had long recognized that the last deficiencies in terms of response and the sound of low and high tones only came through the total change in the bore of the flute tube could be achieved. In Schafhäutl, Boehm had found a scientific advisor for his work who had the necessary theoretical qualifications and who himself made extensive calculations with regard to a further improved flute. Knowing that theory and practice never have to be separated in a further development, but always have to stand side by side as complementary factors, Boehm had manufactured a large number of conical and cylindrical tubes in the most varied of dimensions and various metals and types of wood for his numerous experiments to be able to thoroughly examine their usefulness in terms of pitch, response and tonal ability. The experiments with the wooden pipes, however, were soon given up after it had been found that - because of the instability of the wood - no exact measurements could be obtained; In particular, the different thermal conductivity compared to other materials (metals) will have led to different values ​​for which there are no generally applicable rules to date. 30 The oldest metal flutes shown below, which were constructed by flute makers between 1850 and 1860, are visually very similar to today's instruments. A striking feature of most flutes is the signature on at least two and sometimes even all three parts of the instrument. Fig. 2/24 Lid flute made of silver. Munich 1851, Theobald Boehm (Lensky and ‘Ventzke) Fig. 2/25 Silver flute 1860 Louis Lot. (Lensky and Ventzke) see the detailed description in the appendix. Fig. 2/26 Gold flute Louis Lot. (Lensky and Ventzke) see the detailed description in the appendix. In addition to the material, the tone hole spacing, the tone hole sizes, the mouth hole, etc., they also experimented with the shape and length of the body: an exceptional example is a silver flute with a square body from Paris in 1894. This shape was intended to address the problem of the interference effect caused by the tone hole chimneys evade with conventional construction. In German orchestras, the constant use of pure silver flutes was largely an exception until after the Second World War, even if the conviction was expressed as early as 1927 that “the metal flute was undoubtedly preferred due to its easier response, lower consumption of physical strength and greater modulation ability”. (Lensky, Karl & Ventzke, Karl: Das goldene Zeitalter der Flöte p. 239) 31 2.4 Acoustic aspects 2.4.1 The influence of the player on the sound In an article by Jürgen Meyer about acoustics and musical performance practice ”(Meyer, 1995. 59), the essential factors that play a role in the development of sound in transverse flutes are highlighted. In his opinion, the material has the least influence on the sound, which, especially for professional flautists, often only has a psychological effect and this alone creates a possible sound difference. (Meyer, 1995. S60) The musician himself plays a much larger role, as does the blowing pressure (or airflow speed through the lips), the degree of coverage of the mouth hole (i.e. the distance between the lip opening and the blowing edge) and the blowing direction. Meyer denies that the lip opening has an effect on the timbre. It only affects the dynamics. The overtone structure in the sound of transverse flutes is very even. With a few exceptions, the fundamental tone is the strongest of all partials. (Meyer, 1995. S59) This is not so clearly pronounced in any orchestral instrument. “The player can vary the strength ratio between the lower partials and thus the timbre within a relatively wide range. “(Meyer, 1995. p. 59) An increase in the blowing pressure, for example, leads to the first overtones falling better on the associated resonances and thus becoming stronger relative to the fundamental. The sound gets brighter. In addition to the influence on the intonation, a lower coverage leads to the fact that the air jet is softened at its edges. This causes a weakening of the overtones with the same strength of the fundamental tone; the shorter the distance, the brighter the timbre will be. In addition, by changing the cover, the tuning of the higher resonances can be set up within certain limits so that the sound is as quiet as possible. In a magazine for friends of old and new wind music, issue 3, which was published in 1988, contains a report by Ingolf Bork and Jürgen Meyer in which the influence of playing technique on the sound of the flute is carefully examined. As already mentioned, these are the four parameters: The air pressure generated in the mouth The shape and size of the lip opening The degree of coverage of the mouth hole The direction of the air flow blown onto the edge of the mouth hole The player can control the last two by turning the flute (or the Headpiece) and the pressure against the lower lip to a greater or lesser extent. Bork and Meyer describe an experiment in which an instrument was made to sound by blowing it artificially. The device used has been developed to determine the influence of constructive details of the flutes on the sound and it allows the effect of the individual parameters to be shown independently and systematically. (Meyer, Bork. 1988, p.179) With this knowledge, players can use their technical playing possibilities more consciously and listen to the tonal effects. In the following I would like to briefly summarize what Meyer and Bork have brought to the public in a detailed article. The technical possibilities of influencing the sound can be described in a greatly simplified manner as follows: The blowing pressure This is the flow speed of the air jet between the lips of the blower, which cannot be measured 100%. An increase in the blowing pressure also results in an increase in the basic frequency of the tone, provided this influence is not compensated for by one of the other technical possibilities. In other words, a change in volume also changes the timbre. This is perceived by the player as very positive in terms of increasing the ability to express themselves. The lip opening Enlarging the lip opening leads to a higher sound level, but also enables a greater range of variation for the blowing pressure. A quiet piano is easier with a smaller lip opening, and the sound is perceived as brighter. If the opening is larger, a darker colored piano can be played. For low tones the lip opening (as has been proven by measurements) is made wider, for higher frequencies it is made narrower. If the lip opening is too narrow, the deepest notes speak with difficulty or not at all. For the "Fortespiel", the larger lip opening is energetically more favorable, but a change in tone color is hardly feasible. Covering the mouth hole The most important measure the flautist can take to change the approach is to turn the instrument (the headpiece); in addition, the instrument can be pressed more or less firmly against the lower lip. As a result, on the one hand, the mouth hole is covered to a different extent, which shifts the pipe resonances, and on the other hand, the distance between the lip gap and the mouth hole edge is varied. The first-mentioned effect mainly affects the intonation and therefore represents the most important possibility for intonation corrections for the player. As far as dynamics are concerned, it can be said that the tone becomes weaker as the mouth hole is covered. The risk of overblowing is counteracted with increasing coverage in the mold by reducing the blowing pressure. One can imagine that the rotation of the air jet is blown more or less symmetrically against the edge of the mouth hole. If the mouth hole is turned too far away from the lip opening, the noise components in the sound increase drastically. The influence of the blowing direction The direction in which the air jet is blown against the mouth hole edge has an influence on how long the jet flows into the inside of the flute and how long it flows outwards during a period of oscillation. The direction of the air jet towards the edge of the mouth hole has an enormous influence on the timbre. For example, if the beam is turned a little inwards or outwards, the sound becomes more distinctive and brighter. An optimal sound approach is achieved when the air jet is directed slightly outwards in the lower register, more inwards in the second octave and approximately symmetrically to the edge of the mouth hole in the third octave. The lower the blowing pressure, the smaller the distance between the lips and the edge of the mouth hole must be. With these four parameters the flutist can influence intonation, dynamics, articulation and timbre. Both the limits of the variation ranges for the technical parameters as well as the extent of the tonal influence can differ significantly from each other for individual flutes and thus represent criteria for the quality of the instruments. The investigations show the general tendency that applies to each flute in terms of tonal performance can be transferred. 33 The Effects of Vibrato in Relation to the Sound of the Flute (after Meyer 1991) Vibrato also has an essential effect on the sound. It can, so to speak, "enliven" him. In a detailed article about flute sound and vibrato from the magazine "Kurs-Postille II" from 23. -28. 3. In 1991 Jürgen Meyer spoke again under the title "Thoughts of an Acoustician". It is not about the application (whether it is desired in this or that epoch, with this or that piece, or not), but rather the tonal aspects of the vibrato on the flute. For singers as well as for players of the most varied of instruments, one finds values ​​of the vibrato frequency in the literature that lie between about 5 Hertz and 8 Hertz, i.e. 5 to 8 vibrations per minute. The fact that this area has evidently turned out to be optimal from the musical experience of the musicians can be explained by certain characteristics of the hearing: In this area, despite the frequency fluctuations caused by the vibrato, the hearing still perceives a clear pitch, accompanied by the impression of an internal animated sound. With a vibrato slower than 5 Hertz, the hearing can still “hear” the frequency fluctuations and follow the up and down of the tones. Apart from other aesthetic aspects, this naturally leads to intonation problems in the interplay. On the other hand, if the frequency of the vibrato becomes faster and a limit of 10 Hertz is exceeded, the sound takes on a restless, rough character, which in turn is perceived as annoying. Although a stronger vibrato is common for opera singers (vibrato width approx. Plus minus 75 cents), wind players describe a vibrato width of plus minus 15 cents as very strong. The flautist creates his vibrato by periodically varying the pressure on the instrument. The tonal effect of vibrato is primarily based on timbre modulation. Every instrumental sound is changed by the surrounding space before it reaches the listener. The sound of the flute has two points of origin from which it is radiated into the room: the mouth hole and the first open side hole or, in the case of tone c‘- the end of the pipe. The sound reaches the listener and also the player himself not only on the direct route from the instrument to the ears, but also on various detours via reflections on the walls and the ceiling. All of these detours are associated with different transit times for the sound. At a certain point in time, the listener therefore encounters sound components that were emitted by the instrument at different points in time. The room thus integrates the sound of the instrument for the listener over a certain period of time, whereby the sound reflections are naturally weaker the later they arrive. In addition, the reflections are attenuated depending on the characteristics of the room.The vibrato in the flutist increases the conspicuity within an ensemble or orchestra. It does not increase the width, as with the violin, but the conciseness of the sound and thus contributes to the transparency of the voice leading. Mind you, this applies to larger rooms. At close range, the vibrato has an almost equally invigorating effect on all instruments. 34 2.4.2 Other sound influences in relation to the instrument Summarized after a conversation with Mr. Werner Tomasi - Vienna Flute Workshop. Apart from the material, many other factors can have an influence on the sound of an instrument. For example, says Tomasi, the weight of an instrument can also affect the sound. This depends very much on the material, because gold, for example, has a higher specific weight than silver. Flutists also see a difference between playing with a C-foot or B-foot. Flutes can be thin-walled as well as thick-walled, have drawn or soldered chimneys - all these factors can also contribute to the influence of the sound. Example: The inside diameter of the flute is usually 19 mm, regardless of whether it is a thin or thick-walled flute. If the inside diameter were larger, the flute would have a larger volume, but it would be more difficult to respond in the third octave. The flute makers are also experimenting with the material of the upholstery and believe that they can also improve the sound. The Sankyo company, for example, produces its cushions from felt and intestinal skin, which has the advantage that mechanical vibrations are dampened. Muramatsu has developed its own plastic for its cushions and for the first time left air cushions under the elastic silicone layer, which has the disadvantage that these cushions often do not cover very well. The so-called "Straubinger cushions" are plastic cushions that are less attenuating than those made of felt, but they would improve the sound and the response. However, the sound loses its warmth and bonds become more difficult. . Experiment by Coltman 1971 (quoted from Sonneck) In order to examine the influence of the material on the timbre of flutes, Coltman carried out listening and playing tests with three flutes without holes, which were tuned to 398 Hz. The inside diameter of all flutes was 1.90 cm. The flutes consisted of silver (wall thickness 0.036 cm), copper (0.153, four times heavier than the silver flute) and grenadilla wood (0.41 cm, 1.7 times heavier). The head pieces were identical: the material was Delrin and the mouth hole was made of epoxy resin. A special device (all three flutes were mounted in a frame - see illustration on the following page) ensured that the player did not know which flute he was playing on. In the listening test the author played the keynote, the octave and the octave binding; 27 test persons, including 20 professional musicians or experienced amateur musicians (including 13 flutists), tried to assign the produced sounds to the flutes. The result of this listening test was that it failed: none of the assignments was significantly above the random value. In the play test, the three flutes were played by 4 trained flautists. The assignment of the players themselves also showed no significant deviation from the random value. Since neither the experienced listener nor the trained flutist could distinguish between instruments whose only difference is the wall material and the wall thickness (the leadpipe was identical), the author concludes that the wall material and wall thickness neither influence the timbre nor the response of transverse flutes. However, he points out that there could be other reasons for preferring certain materials: for example, the warm-up time for the copper flute is significantly longer (due to the higher thermal mass), which was also suggested by one of the musicians (due to the slightly lower tuning) during of the attempt was noticed. Coltman 1971 Fig. 2/27 Experiment by Coltman 36 3. The experimental setup 3.1 The players The players are professional musicians who are employed in Vienna, either in Viennese orchestras, or freelance. They all played on the seven flutes, which are described in chapter 3.2. are described in detail, in the same order. The recording time per person was about 40 minutes. In order to create the same recording conditions for all flutes as possible, nobody was allowed to play on any flute. The players were: Maura Bayer (MB) freelance, born 1955, about 20 years of professional gaming experience Dorit Führer (DF) University of Music and Performing Arts Vienna, born 1958, about 20 years of professional gaming experience Rudolf Gindlhumer (RG) Wiener Volksoper and Conservatory of the City of Vienna, born 1955, about 31 years of professional playing experience Wolfgang Lindenthal (WL) stage orchestra of the Vienna State Opera, born 1976, about 8 years of professional playing experience Renate Linortner (RL) Wiener Volksoper, born 1973, about 10 years professional Playing experience Matthias Schulz (MS) freelance, born 1972, about 11 years of professional playing experience Wolfgang Schulz (WS) Vienna Philharmonic, born 1946, about 35 years of professional playing experience 37 3.2 The instruments The seven flutes were instruments made by Muramatsu, which were used by the Owners themselves or made available by the Viennese flute workshop Mr. Werner Tomasi. Since the instruments were made by the same company, one can assume that at least the basic mechanics, the mouth plate and the workmanship are relatively identical. But it should be mentioned that it was impossible to get seven completely identical instruments with the sole difference in material. Silver-plated (VSI) H-foot, open flaps, headjoint in full silver, body in nickel, silver-plated. [New price approx. ATS 40,000 / 3,000 Euro] Fig. 3 / 1a Silver (SI) model AD, drawn chimneys, H-foot, open flaps [New price approx. ATS 100,000 / 7,300 Euro] Fig. 3 / 1b Platinum-plated (VPT) Is a silver flute, platinum-plated. With H-foot, open flaps [new price approx. ATS 150,000 / 10,900 euros] Fig. 3 / 1c 9 carat (9K) H-foot, open flaps, silver mechanism [new price approx. ATS 200,000 / 14,500 euros] Fig. 3 / 1d 38 14 carat (14K) body 14K silver mechanics A 14 carat flute (B-foot, open keys, gold-plated silver mechanics) was used to record the WS, MS and WL. [New price approx. ATS 300,000 / 22,000 euros] Fig. 3 / 1e 14K body and mechanism For the recordings of DF, RG, RL and MB a 14 carat solid gold flute with a C-foot and closed keys was used. [New price approx. ATS 400,000 / 30,000 euros] Fig. 3 / 1f 24 carat (24K) H-foot, closed keys, 14 carat mechanism [new price approx. 1,000,000 ATS / 73,000 euros] Fig. 3 / 1g platinum (PT ) B-foot, closed keys, 14 carat mechanics [new price approx. 1,000,000 ATS / 73,000Euro] Fig. 3 / 1h The order of the instruments in which the recordings were played and which was the same for each player was as follows: 1. 14 carat (14K) 2. Platinum plated (VPT) 3. Full silver (SI) 4. 24 carat (24K) 5. Silver plated (VSI) 6. 9 carat (9 carat) 7. Platinum (PT) 39 Fig. 3 / 2a-d: The 7 test instruments Fig. 3 / 2a Fig. 3 / 2b 40 Fig. 3 / 2c Fig. 3 / 2d 3.3 The recording program The following was recorded: 1. Chromatics: from c1 to c4, tones individually and well separated from each other bumped, volume: rich mezzoforte. 2. fff and ppp: single notes at maximum volume and the quietest piano: g1, a2, f3 3. crescendo: single notes from ppp to fff: a1, f2, d3, b4 4. Two audition points: selected according to the criteria of cantabile and legato: prelude 3rd act from Carmen von Bizet, short name Carmen. Volume and volume: Solo position piu Andante from the 1st symphony by Brahms, abbreviated as Brahms. Fig. 3 / 3a Fig. 3 / 3b Fig. 3 / 3c 41 3.4 Sound recording and processing Recording of sound samples The recording took place on two dates (May 3 and June 2, 2000) in the anechoic room of the IWK with 7 flautists. In order to create a reproducible recording situation, the flutists played while seated. The recording management was partly taken over by the author herself, partly by the staff at the IWK. The following illustration outlines the devices and positions when recording. Low reflection room in the Institute for Vienna Sound Style 12345 12345 12345 12345 12345 12345 Micro 1 (AKG C414) "Ear" Micro 2 (AKG C577) m 0c 0 1 C577 2 12345 12345 12345 12345 1 nz sta i D r iele Sp Headphones with artificial reverb (Top view) 123 123123 123 123 123 123 123 123 123123 12345 12345 12345 12345 12345 12345 12345 12345 12345 12345 12345 1 12345 12345 12345 12345 12345 12345 12345 12345 12345 12345 12345 2 DUKE's preamp: microphone phantom power & preamplifier ( + 20dB) recording on 8 track dig. Recorder (Fostex RD8) and directly to the PC (hard disk recording) KORG 1212 I / O Interface Fig. 3/4 The structure of the sound recordings in the IWK 42 123 123 RegieMikro + Hall (Zoom) Room selection 1, 2 or 3 device settings Microphones: Types, setup and distances Mic 1 = microphone no.1: AKG C414 in the corner 165 cm high above the wire mesh floor 100 cm at an angle (in front of the player) from the mouth hole of the fetus 30 cm higher than the mouth hole of the flute being played (see Fig 3.5 b) Microphone in standard setting (omnidirectional characteristic, 0 dB BP, 0Hz, LP) Mic 2 = microphone no.2: AKG C577 near the ear of the player (approx. 5 cm) The phantom power for both microphones was provided by the "DUKE's Preamp ". Calibration By means of a siren signal which, measured at a distance of one meter, always emits a 1 kHz signal with 100 dB SPL, the recorded samples can be dynamically adequately controlled. The signal transmitter was removed from the "anechoic" room after the siren signal was recorded, or before the flutist recorded it. Recording: The signals from the preamplifier "DUKE's Preamp." are partially recorded with the 8-track digital recorder FOSTEX RD-8 on 2 tracks each, or directly into the computer via hard disk recording (KORG 1212 I / O interface card). The sampling rate was 44.1 kHz. The signals recorded with the microphone 1 were played back in real time to the player via headphones. The signal could also be given a reverberation selected by the player in order to bring the extraordinary acoustics of the anechoic room to a more natural ambient condition. For this purpose, three different acoustic "room sizes" were offered, which were generated with the "Zoom" reverb device. Digital signal processing The recorded sound files were saved with their original sampling rate on the hard disk and then on CD-ROM. The files (16 Bit / PCM / Mono) with 44.1 kHz were segmented and analyzed as Windows ".wav" format. The software SoundForge 4.5 from SONIC and S_Tools was used. S_Tools is a digital workstation developed at the Research Center for Sound Research at the Austrian Academy of Sciences for the acquisition, storage and processing of acoustic signals such as noise, speech and music1. 1 Information on S_Tools comes from online documents [URL HTTP://WWW.KFS.OEAW.AC.AT/FSF/DSP/ STG02.HTML] on February 24, 1998 by Werner Deutsch (Research Center for Sound Research of the AUSTRIAN ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. [ Email: [email protected]