What is concrete mix design

How is concrete made?

Concrete is made up of different ingredients that have different functions. The properties of concrete depend mainly on the mixing of concrete components, i.e. H. Cement, coarse aggregates, fine aggregates (sand) and water. Various other concrete components can also be used such as admixtures, pigments, fibers, polymers and reinforcement. All of these ingredients help to change the properties of the fresh and hardened concrete. In short, these materials are like family members and they fulfill their individual role in such a way that they contribute to the overall success of concrete as a whole family.

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We often think that concrete can be made easily by following a few simple steps, but in reality this is not the situation. Mixing concrete ingredients in the correct proportion is a must. Concrete is made with a scientific formula. Concrete Mix Design is done to select certain concrete components. Below is a brief description of the common concrete components.

Also Read: What is Concrete Mix Design (CMD)?


Cement is used as the strongest binder in concrete. It is able to submerge, harden, and remain stable. When cement is mixed with water, it forms a paste and acts like glue. Cement paste fills voids between aggregate particles and binds them to a solid mass.

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Read also: Types of cement


The main constituent used quantitatively in concrete are aggregates. Aggregates bound by cement that look like an artificial stone. Aggregates play a very important role in improving concrete properties such as machinability, thermal expansion, shrinkage, compressive and tensile strength. Aggregates are usually divided into two categories depending on their size, as they are coarse aggregates and fine aggregates.

Coarse aggregate

Fine aggregate
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Water acts as a lubricant and plays an important role in mixing, setting, laying, compacting and hardening concrete. The amount and quality of water used in the mix directly affects the strength of the concrete.

Water is the only concrete additive that chemically reacts with the cement so that setting and hardening takes place. Water spreads the cement to fill the voids between the aggregates. An even layer of cement mortar adheres to all units.

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Admixtures are chemical additives that are added to the concrete during dosing. The properties of fresh and hardened concrete are changed by adding small admixtures. There are different types of additives, i.e. plasticizers, air voids, retarders, accelerators, seals, etc.

So, making concrete for the structural element of the house directly depends on the quality and quantity of all the components. So choose all the concrete ingredients wisely and make your home permanent.

Also read:

Processability of fresh concrete
When does concrete start to heal?
Posted in Components