What are examples of useful organic compounds

Organic Chemistry - Four Basic Elements and Definition

Good day and welcome. This video is called: Organic Chemistry - 4 Basic Elements and Definition. The film is structured as follows: 1. A whole branch 2. 4 basic elements 3. 2 examples of biochemistry 4. Why are there so many connections? 5. Urea synthesis with definition of organic chemistry 6. Natural substances - produced in the laboratory! 7. New substances 1. A whole branch One can divide chemistry according to different points of view. The original and classic division is that into inorganic and organic chemistry. In inorganic chemistry we meet compounds that we already got to know at school, such as typical bases, acids and salts. Sodium hydroxide, NaOH, hydrochloric acid, HCl, and sodium chloride, common salt, NaCl, may be mentioned here as representatives. Organic chemistry is sometimes referred to as carbon chemistry. It includes hydrocarbons such as CH4, C2H6 or C8H18. But be careful, certain carbon compounds such as H2CO3, carbonic acid, or Na2CO3, sodium carbonate, soda, are not organic compounds. 2. 4 basic elements There are a multitude of organic compounds and the amazing thing is that they are made up of only a few elements. The basic compound and the element that must be contained in every organic compound is carbon, C. Almost all organic compounds also contain hydrogen. Oxygen and nitrogen follow in a lower percentage. These 4 chemical elements make up about 98% of organic compounds. In addition, the chemical elements phosphorus, P, and sulfur, S. Only a few elements form the structures of organisms. They enter into the connection that represent the bearers of the function of life. And the amazing thing is that there are generally valid construction principles for the molecules. 3. 2 Examples from Biochemistry First I would like to mention an example from energy storage. This rather complicated molecule that I am drawing here has the chemical name adenosine triphosphate or ATP for short. The 3 phosphorus atoms on the left together with the attached oxygen atoms form the triphosphate. The 5-ring at the bottom with the oxygen atom in the ring and the two hydroxyl groups on the ring come from a sugar molecule, the so-called ribose. The large group consisting of two rings, which contains a total of 5 nitrogen atoms, comes from the nucleobase adenine. ATP can be subjected to hydrolysis, i.e. decomposition with water. This releases a free energy of hydrolysis of -30.5 KJ / mol. The hydrolytic cleavage of the molecule takes place between the two phosphorus atoms on the left. A phosphoric acid residue and a diphosphate are formed. This means that adenosine triphosphate has formed adenosine diphosphate. A second example is acetyl transfer. The rather complicated molecule that I am drawing here has certain similarities with the ADP and ATP, which we discussed in the previous example. But I don't want to go into further detail. This compound is called coenzyme A. The group SH is decisive for the effect of this coenzyme A. SH is able to attach and transfer the acetyl group of the acetic acid CH3CO. The hydrogen atom of SH is exchanged for the acetyl group CH3CO and water is produced. The resulting compound is called acetyl-coenzyme A. After this impressive example we want to ask ourselves the following question: Why are there so many organic compounds? The chemical element carbon has properties that no other chemical element in the periodic table of elements has. Carbon atoms form chains. Carbon atoms are able to branch out. Carbon atoms can form rings. And finally, carbon atoms are able to form spatial arrangements. 5. The Urea Synthesis About 200 years ago it was believed that organic substances can only be produced if one has the life force that only occurs in animals and plants. In 1828 the German chemist Friedrich Wöhler achieved a groundbreaking synthesis. Wöhler experimented with the salt ammonium cyanate. He heated it up and got a new chemical compound. It turned out to be urea. Ammonium acetate is inorganic, urea is an organic compound. With this it could be shown that one does not need the life force for the production of organic substances. One can rightly call the synthesis of urea as the hour of birth of organic chemistry. And now we come to the definition of the term organic chemistry. Organic chemistry is the chemistry of hydrocarbons and derivatives of hydrocarbons. 6. Natural substances - produced in the laboratory In the meantime, a large number of natural substances that are produced by living things could also be produced in the laboratory. These include amino acids and peptides, carbohydrates, fats, nucleotides (building blocks of genetic material), vitamins and hormones. 7. New substances In the meantime, man has been able to produce and utilize many new and useful substances. These include acetylsalicylic acid, better known as aspirin. Or paraaminobenzenesulfonamide, an important sulfonamide. Or the two polymer compounds, polyethylene in carrier bags or Perlon, a polyamide. I think that's enough for an introduction to organic chemistry. Thanks for the attention! Goodbye.