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Nigeria - Nigeria: security situation

The ecoi.net topic dossiers offer an overview of a selected topic. The Nigeria thematic dossier deals with the most important current security incidents, divided into the three parts of the country: North, South and Central Nigeria. The information comes from selected sources and does not claim to be complete.

Nigeria is the largest economy in Africa, with 175 million inhabitants the most populous country on the continent and also a creative power on the African continent and in the world. The country is facing major challenges, however, as the income from oil production has so far hardly had any poverty-reducing effect. More than two thirds of the population live in extreme poverty and there is high unemployment (GIZ, undated) i. Corruption and mismanagement have undermined the authority and legitimacy of the state. Despite extensive oil reserves, human development indicators are among the lowest in the world. (CRS, February 1, 2019, Summary) ii

Nigeria is made up of 36 states divided into 774 Local Government Areas (LGAs) and the Federal Capital Territory (FCT) of Abuja. Each state has a government and a State House of Assembly. GIZ, December 2015)

After the end of military rule in May 1999, the fourth republic was proclaimed with the election of Olusegun Obasanjo. Since then, the conflict in Nigeria has been characterized by an uprising in the Niger Delta, periodic outbreaks of violence in the “Middle Belt” and an increase in violence in the northeast (FfP, April 21, 2014) iii. Goodluck Jonathan was elected President in 2011 following the death of President Yar’Adua, who succeeded Obasanjo (USDOS, June 25, 2015, Executive Summary) iv. Muhammadu Buhari has been President of Nigeria since May 2015 (BBC, October 2, 2015) v. Buhari was re-elected in the February 2019 elections. After the election winner was announced by the independent Nigerian electoral commission INEC (Independent National Electoral Commission), the SWP wrote: “It is not to be expected that the security and economic situation in Nigeria will fundamentally change with Buhari's re-election. In principle, Buhari entered the election with the same announcements as four years ago. The results of the first term of office are not particularly successful, and there are no signs of a trend reversal. It looks more like maintaining power. " (SWP, April 2019, pp. 1-3) vi

Ethnic and religious conflicts are commonplace in Nigeria. Tens of thousands of Nigerians have been killed in religiously motivated and inter-community clashes over the past two decades. Ethnic, regional and religious divisions are often linked to access to land, work and socio-economic development and are sometimes fueled by politicians. The violent Islamist group Boko Haram has contributed to a severe deterioration in security conditions in the north-west of the country since 2009. In the southern delta region, conflict and crime have been fueled for decades by local grievances related to oil production in the area. The region has calmed down through irregular negotiations between the government and local militias and an ongoing amnesty program. In 2016 there was a brief spike in attacks on oil facilities, which continue to pose a threat to stability and oil production. Protests in the southeast, which is dominated by the Igbo ethnic group, against alleged marginalization led to clashes with security forces. In the “Middle Belt”, the violent competition for resources between nomadic shepherds and settled peasant communities has increased in recent years, which has also spread to the southern states. (CRS, February 1, 2019, pp. 1-2)

(States: Adamawa, Benue, Federal Capital Territory, Kogi, Kwara, Nasarawa, Niger, Plateau, Taraba)

2.1. General information

While Nigeria is best known for its oil and gas production, 70 percent of the country's workforce is employed in agriculture. Small farms in the center and south of the country are responsible for the majority of the tuber and vegetable harvests, while the herdsmen in the north generate most of the crops and livestock. Historically, the relationships between the shepherds and the sedentary farming communities have been harmonious. The shepherds 'cattle manured the peasants' land in exchange for grazing rights. However, tensions have increased over the past decade with violent incidents in the central and southern states. Incidents have already occurred in at least 22 of the 36 Nigerian states. (ICG, September 19, 2017, p. 1) vii

The state of Plateau lies on the border between the largely Christian south and the predominantly Muslim north and has been affected by irregular ethnic and religious tensions for decades. The predominantly agricultural Christian communities claim that the Muslim Fulani shepherds want to appropriate the areas of the so-called indigenous population. The Fulani counter that they have been discriminated against and denied their basic rights, including access to land, education and political office, despite having lived in the area for generations. According to observers, over 10,000 people have been killed in Plateau since 2000. (AFP, September 17, 2015) viii

Religiously motivated violence is a problem especially in the city of Jos. The tensions between the communities in the culturally diverse “Middle Belt” are both religious and ethnic in nature and are the result of competition for resources between ethnic groups classified as “settlers” or “indigenous”. In Jos, the predominantly Christian Berom are considered indigenous, while the predominantly Muslim Hausa-Fulani are considered settlers. (CRS, November 15, 2013, p. 12)

The violent conflict has now taken on tribal, religious and regional dimensions. Every year around 2,500 people are killed in the Middle Belt and in areas south of it. The conflict is already so deadly that many Nigerians fear it could become as dangerous as the Boko Haram uprising. (ICG, July 20, 2017)

During 2019, conflicts between shepherds and farmers in the central and northern states decreased due to government action and civil society conflict resolution mechanisms. However, during the year there were "silent killings" in which people disappeared and were later found dead. In 2019, conflicts over land rights continued among the Tiv, Kwalla, Jukun, Fulani and Azara ethnic groups in the border areas of the states of Nasarawa, Benue and Taraba. (USDOS, March 11, 2020, Section 6)

See the Northern States section for more information on incidents involving the shepherd-farmer conflict.

2.2. Current situation

On July 10, 2020, 7 people were killed by unknown attackers in the village of Chembe in the Logo area in the state of Benue. Community violence continued on July 29, killing 14 people in Agbudu village, Kogi state. (ICG, August 2020)

Violence between shepherds and farmers and ethnic groups continued in June 2020. On June 3, 9 people were killed in Kaduna State, 9 farmers in Benue State on June 14, and 3 farmers in Jigawa State on June 19. (ICG, July 2020)

In the Middle Belt, inter-community violence broke out in Adamawa, Taraba and Benue states in May 2020, killing at least 80 people. On May 10, 8 people were killed in fighting between the Ichen and Tiv ethnic groups in Taraba state, and 8 ethnic Fulani were killed on May 19. In Adamawa state, 48 people were killed in clashes between Hausa and Chabo communities on May 14-15. At least 8 people were killed in inter-community violence and bandit violence in the Guma area in the Benue Federal Statue in May. At least 8 people were killed in clashes between Fulani shepherds and farming communities in Adamawa and Benue states on May 12. (ICG, June 2020)

On March 23, 2020, security forces used live ammunition and tear gas in Abuja to break up a demonstration by members of the Shiite Islamic Movement of Nigeria (IMN). (HRW, March 26, 2020) ix

In Adamawa state, at least three soldiers and several civilians were killed in attacks by the Boko Haram in attacks on the city of Garkida on February 21 and 22. (ICG, March 2020)

Clashes between shepherds and farmers continued in the state of Plateau. On February 9, three civilians were killed by suspected shepherds in the village of Tyana and two soldiers in Barkin Ladi on February 16. On February 18, security forces set fire to a Fulani camp in Barkin Ladi after an ultimatum to extradite the attackers expired. (ICG, March 2020)

The Boko Haram killed the local leader of a Christian association in Adamawa state on January 20. (ICG, February, 2020)

Violence continued in the Middle Belt in January 2020. On January 1st, 30 people were killed in the city of Tawari in the state of Kogi. In the state of Plateau twelve people were killed in clashes between cattle thieves and local youths in the village of Kulben on January 9, and 23 people were killed on January 27 in the village of Kwatas. (ICG, February, 2020)

On September 28, 2019, suspected Jukun militias attacked the Tiv community in the village of Akume, Taraba state, despite representatives of the two ethnic groups having agreed a ceasefire two days earlier. There has been renewed violence since April 2019. (ACLED, October 2, 2019, p. 2)

On September 1, 2019, 14 civilians were killed in an attack by an unidentified group on Takum, Taraba state. In a retaliatory attack by Jukun youth the following day, five suspected attackers were beheaded. The current crisis between the Tiv and Jukun communities broke out in April 2019. (ACLED, September 10, 2019, pp. 1-2)

Eleven protesters, a journalist and a police officer were killed on July 22, 2019 when Nigerian police opened fire at a demonstration by the Shiite Islamic Movement in Nigeria (IMN) in Abuja. Dozens of other people were injured or arrested, according to eyewitnesses and official information. (HRW, July 24, 2019)

Between January 1 and June 30, 2019, violent incidents between farmers and shepherds in many states of the "Middle Belt" resulted in severe human and material losses and displacement. (UN Security Council, July 5, 2019, pp. 4-5) x

Intercommunal conflict between the Tiv and Junkun continued in late June 2019 in Wukari, Taraba state, with 20 civilians reportedly killed by Tiv militias. (ACLED, July 1, 2019) xi

Despite the signing of a peace agreement between leaders of the Tiv and the Junkun on June 11, 2019, there was intercommunal violence between the two groups in Wukari, with 22 civilians dead. (ACLED, June 25, 2019)

Near Wukari in the state of Taraba, 12 members of the Tiv were killed in intermunicipal violence on June 4, 2019. (ACLED, June 11, 2019)

On April 14, 2019, 16 people were killed in the Akwanga area, Nasarawa state, amid tensions between farmers and herders. On April 17, 2019, 15 people were killed and three others injured in attacks by Fulani herders in the Numa area, Adamawa state. In addition, on April 19, 2019, 11 people were killed by unknown gunmen in the state of Benue, while 40 more people are missing. (ACLED, April 23, 2019, p. 2)

“On the evening of March 18, 2019, fighters from the terrorist organization Boko Haram attacked the city of Michika (headquarters of the Local Government Area of ​​the same name, Adamawa state) and tried to rob a bank located there. They are said to have set fire to the bank and some houses. After lengthy battles with the army, the attackers were driven out ”(BAMF, March 25, 2019, p. 6) xii

(States: Bauchi, Borno, Gombe, Jigawa, Kaduna, Kano, Katsina, Kebbi, Sokoto, Yobe, Zamfara)

3.1. General information

The Boko Haram was created in 1990 from a group of radical Islamic youth in the Al-Hajji Muhammadu Ndimi mosque in Maiduguri, reports the International Crisis Group (ICG). The former leader of the Boko Haram, Mohammed Yusuf, was previously a preacher and leader of the youth wing of the Salafist group Ahl-Sunnah, Shababul Islam (Vanguard of the Islamic Youth, Islamic Youth Vanguard) (ICG, April 3, 2014, p. 7). According to the German weekly newspaper Die Zeit, experts see “the initial attractiveness of Boko Haram primarily due to the political and social conditions in northern Nigeria: society is ethnically and religiously fragmented, and poverty and unemployment are higher than in other parts of the country. The state only fulfills its tasks to a limited extent, the local governments are often corrupt. While the group acted non-violently in the first few years, it radicalized itself from around 2009 and has been actively fighting the Nigerian state ever since. ”(Die Zeit, last updated November 18, 2015) xiii

According to Amnesty International (AI), over 4,000 people were killed by the Boko Haram in 2014, although the actual number is believed to be higher. Boko Haram fighters killed at least 1,500 people in the first three months of 2015. Since July 2014, the Boko Haram took larger cities. In February 2015, the group controlled most of Borno state, as well as the states of Adamawa and Yobe. In August 2014, the leader of the Boko Haram, Abubakar Shekau, declared the areas controlled by the group a caliphate (AI, April 13, 2015, p. 3) xiv. Shekau later swore allegiance to the Islamic State (ISIS), whereupon the area controlled by Boko Haram was designated by IS as the “Islamic State of West Africa Province” as part of the aspired global caliphate (BBC, May 4, 2015). In response to Boko Haram's oath of allegiance to the 'Islamic State', Nigeria's neighboring countries Chad and Niger launched a military offensive on Nigerian soil on March 8 (Die Zeit, last updated November 18, 2015). According to the think tank Institute for Economics and Peace's Global Terrorism Index, the Boko Haram is currently the world's deadliest terrorist group. For 2015, the group is assigned responsibility for 6,644 deaths (IEP, November 2015, p. 4) xv.

In August 2016, ISIS announced that Abu Musab al-Barnawi would replace Abubakar Shekau as the group's new leader. The group split up due to internal fighting. Shekau continues to have supporters and supporters mainly in the Sambisa Forest. This group is known as the Boko Haram. The governments of Nigeria, Niger, Chad and Cameroon, however, refer to both groups as Boko Haram, with the differentiation “Shekau faction” and “al-Barnawi faction”. (USDOS, September 19, 2018).

More effective measures have been taken against the insurgents since President Buhari's inauguration in May 2015. The insurgents were driven out of most of the areas they had previously controlled. The insurgents reportedly changed tactics towards asymmetric warfare, including kidnapping, rape, forced recruitment of children and adolescents, suicide bombings and sexual slavery. According to experts, however, a full military victory is unlikely and security continues to be seriously threatened by the insurgents. (UNHCR, October 2016, pp. 1-2) xvi

In 2018, Boko Haram and ISIS-West Africa (ISIS-WA) continued to launch attacks against government and security forces in the north-east of the country. The Boko Haram attacks appear to have targeted both civilians and government officials, while ISIS-WA attacks have generally targeted government and security forces. As of the end of 2018, Boko Haram and ISIS-WA had almost complete freedom of movement in the states of Borno and Yobe. In 2018, Boko Haram and ISIS-WA carried out between 600 and 700 attacks in Nigeria. (USDOS, November 1, 2019)

In 2019, Boko Haram and ISIS-West Africa launched attacks on population centers and security forces in Borno state. Boko Haram also carried out limited attacks in Adamawa state, while ISIS-WA attacked targets in Yobe state. The Boko Haram no longer controlled as much territory as before, but it was still possible for both groups in the northeast of the country to carry out attacks on military and civilian targets. (USDOS, March 11, 2020, Section 1g)

3.2.Current situation

On July 10, 2020, 7 people were killed by unknown attackers in the village of Chembe in the Logo area in the state of Benue. Community violence continued on July 29, killing 14 people in Agbudu village, Kogi state. (ICG, August 2020)

Violence between shepherds and farmers and ethnic groups continued in June 2020. On June 3, 9 people were killed in Kaduna State, 9 farmers in Benue State on June 14, and 3 farmers in Jigawa State on June 19. (ICG, July 2020)

In the Middle Belt, inter-community violence broke out in Adamawa, Taraba and Benue states in May 2020, killing at least 80 people. On May 10, 8 people were killed in fighting between the Ichen and Tiv ethnic groups in Taraba state, and 8 ethnic Fulani were killed on May 19. In Adamawa state, 48 people were killed in clashes between Hausa and Chabo communities on May 14-15. At least 8 people were killed in inter-community violence and bandit violence in the Guma area in the Benue Federal Statue in May. At least 8 people were killed in clashes between Fulani shepherds and farming communities in Adamawa and Benue states on May 12. (ICG, June 2020)

Suspected ISIS-WA members killed 50 soldiers between July 7 and 16, 2020. On July 13-19, soldiers repulsed insurgent attacks on Maiduguri and Damasak. 8 ISIS commanders were killed. ISIS-WA killed five humanitarian workers who were kidnapped in June 2020. On July 30, ISIS-WA fired grenades at Maiduguri city. 7 people were killed. According to the military, 80 armed men were killed in operations between July 1 and July 31, while armed groups continued to carry out attacks in Katsina and Zamfara states. At least 25 people were killed in attacks by unknown gunmen on July 6 in Katsina. On July 18, 7 children were killed in an explosive device in the Malumfashi area. On the same day, an armed group attacked an army unit in the Jibia area. At least 23 soldiers were killed. On July 20, 17 women were abducted in Zakka town. 7 people were killed and 20 kidnapped in an attack by an armed group on July 6 in Zamfara state. On July 9, 20 and 23, the Air Force bombed armed groups' hideouts in Zamfara. The exact number of deaths was not known. The army reported that there were indications of links between the armed groups and the jihadist groups.
Between July 9 and 24, 2020, more than 70 residents were killed in armed attacks on rural communities in the state of Kaduna in the areas of Kaura, Kajuru, Kauru and Zangon Kataf. (ICG, August 2020)

In Borno state, 19 attacks were carried out by insurgents from June 1 to 11, 2020, according to a local security officer. On June 9, about 81 people were killed by ISIS-WA and 7 further kidnapped. On June 11, ISIS-WA released a video showing the execution of a kidnapped soldier and a police officer. On June 13, at least 35 people were killed in the group's attacks on Usmanati Goni village in the Nganzai area. On June 28, ISIS-WA released a video showing 5 aid workers previously abducted and reportedly demanding a $ 500,000 ransom. On June 11, insurgents attacked Monguno city, killing at least 41 insurgents and 2 soldiers. At least 20 insurgents and 10 soldiers were killed in clashes between insurgents and soldiers along the Maiduguri-Damboa-Biu road.
On June 5, 70 members of armed groups were killed in military attacks in Kaduna state and many more, including a prominent leader, in Zamfara state on June 23. Gunmen continued to attack towns in the states of Katsina, Zamfara and Niger in June 2020, killing over 140 civilians. Dozens of civilians were also kidnapped. On June 9, for example, 60 residents were killed in the Faskari, Dandume and Sabuwa areas of Katsina state, and on June 2 and 3 at least 21 in the Maru and Talata Mafara areas of Zamfara state. On June 20, at least 26 residents were killed in the Maru area. (ICG, July 2020)

In the north-west of the country, at least 160 civilians were killed in attacks by armed groups in the states of Katsina, Niger, Zamfara, Kaduna and Sokoto in May 2020. In the state of Katsina, unidentified gunmen killed at least 21 people between May 13 and 17, and another 15 people on May 28. In Niger State, gunmen kidnapped 4 construction workers on May 13 and later demanded a ransom. Gunmen killed at least 15 people in the Tsafe area of ​​Zamfara state on May 19. At least 35 people were killed in attacks on towns in the Kajuru area in Kaduna state. At least 74 people were killed in attacks on several villages in the Sabon Birnin area in Sokoto state. On May 28, the military reported that at least 392 bandits and other people were killed in operations in the northwest between May 6 and May 28.
According to reports, between May 1 and May 17, 215 suspected members of the Boko Haram factions JAS (Abubakar Shekau's group) and ISIS-WA were killed. However, jihadist attacks continued in Borno, Yobe and Adamawa states. On May 17, for example, at least 20 civilians were killed in Borno state. (ICG, June 2020)

On March 4, 2020, three soldiers and 19 insurgents were killed in clashes between the Boko Haram and government forces in the city of Damboa, Borno state. On March 15, six soldiers were killed in an attack by the Boko Haram in the Banki area. Several ISIS members were killed in air strikes in the Lake Chad area on March 18. According to the military, over 100 Boko Haram members and 29 soldiers were killed in anti-terrorism operations in the Gorgi area between March 21 and 23. Five people were killed in ISIS attacks on vehicles near Maiduguri on March 28. About 50 soldiers were killed in an attack by the Boko Haram on the village of Goneri in Yobe state on March 23. According to security forces, there are indications of a reappearance of the Boko Haram faction Ansaru. Five Ansaru commanders and twelve bandits were killed during operations in three towns in Kaduna state. More than 110 people were killed in attacks by bandits in the states of Zamfara, Kaduna and Niger in March. (ICG, April 2020)

In February 2020, ISIS and the Boko Haram faction of Abubakar Shekau (Jama’tu Ahlis Sunna Lidda’awati wal-Jihad, JAS) continued to attack security forces and civilians in Borno state. On February 9, alleged insurgents reportedly killed at least 30 civilians in the village of Auno. On February 10, three soldiers, three members of vigilante groups and six insurgents were killed in clashes between Boko Haram fighters and security forces in the Konduga, Magumeri and Kala-Balge areas. During military operations on February 4 and 5, ISIS fighters were killed in the Ngala area and Boko Haram fighters on February 8 and 9 in the Gwoza and Damboa areas. (ICG, March 2020)

At least 40 people were killed in bandit attacks between February 3 and 12 in Kaduna state, while 30 civilians were killed in Katsina state on February 14. 21 people were killed in clashes between bandits and members of vigilante groups in Katsina state on February 27. According to police reports, more than 250 insurgents and bandits and two police officers were killed in a raid on a camp run by the jihadist group Ansaru in Kaduna state on February 5. According to Ansaru, 34 police officers were killed. (ICG, March 2020)

In the state of Borno, six insurgents and four soldiers were killed in clashes between the military and the Boko Haram in the Konduga area on January 4. The Boko Haram killed three civilians in the Chibok area on the same day. ISIS claimed responsibility for an attack on the city of Monguno, in which eight soldiers were killed on January 7th. In addition, insurgents attacked travelers on the road between Maiduguri and Damaturu in January. On January 20, the Boko Haram killed 20 displaced persons and one soldier in the city of Ngala. On January 12, the military killed four ISIS commanders in the Lake Chad area. Between January 24 and 25, several ISIS fighters were also killed by air forces. In suicide attacks in the city of Gwoza on January 26th, three people were killed and outside of Maiduguri on January 30th, four people were killed. In operations against bandits in the states of Zamfara and Katsina, 106 bandits were killed between December 16, 2019 and January 9, 2020, according to the army. On January 14th and 15th, bandits killed 31 people in the state of Zamfara and between January 5th and 25th at least 20 in the state of Niger. In the state of Kaduna, gunmen killed around 35 people between January 6 and 12. The Ansaru group claimed responsibility for an attack on a traditional leader's convoy, killing at least six people. (ICG, February, 2020)

In November 2019, Fulani militias attacked the city of Karaye, Zamfara state, killing 14 people. It is believed to be a retaliatory attack for an attack in Yansakai that previously killed 9 Fulani herders. In the state of Borno, at least 8 soldiers were also killed in clashes with Boko Haram fighters near Gwoza and Marte. Air forces launched attacks on Boko Haram positions in Jubillaram. (ACLED, November 26, 2019)

In November 2019, two days of fighting between military forces and Boko Haram / ISIS-WA broke out in Malam Fatori, Borno state. (ACLED, November 19, 2019, p. 1)

The Boko Haram announced in late October 2019 that it had launched an offensive against the military in Sokoto state. Many soldiers are believed to have been killed, but the exact number is unknown. (ACLED, October 30, 2019)

On September 25, 2019, the Boko Haram attacked a military convoy in Borno state, killing 14 soldiers. On the same day, the army carried out air strikes against the Boko Haram in Kusuma. In the days that followed, the Boko Haram attacked civilians in Biu, killing seven people and abducting ten others. Another attack in Mafa killed two people and burned a market. (ACLED, October 2, 2019, pp. 1-2)

In September 2019, the Boko Haram killed nine members of a family in Borno state. (ACLED, September 25, 2019, p. 2) In the states of Katsina, Kaduna, Gombe and Bauchi, several demonstrators were killed in demonstrations by the Islamic Movement following police intervention. (ACLED, September 17, 2019, p. 2)

In Borno state, four security forces were killed in an attack by the Boko Haram on a military position in Gajiram. (ACLED, September 10, 2019, p. 2)

At least 65 people were killed in an alleged attack by Islamists on visitors to a funeral, according to Nigerian state television. So far, no group has committed itself to the attack, but the Boko Haram and the rival faction Islamic State in West Africa (ISWA) had often carried out attacks in the area before. (Reuters, July 28, 2019)

In July 2019, the Boko Haram attacked the Dalori IDP camp near Maiduguri in Borno state. On July 27, 2019, at least 23 civilians in the Nganzai area of ​​Borno state were also killed in a suicide attack by the Boko Haram on visitors to a funeral (see also the above-mentioned incident). (ACLED, July 30, 2019)

A series of attacks on civilians took place in Katsina state between June 29 and July 3. 11 people were killed in attacks on ten villages in the Local Government Area (LGA) Kankara and 17 people were killed in attacks on three villages in the LGA Dan Musa. It is unclear who was responsible for the attacks. In the state of Zamfara, the military launched attacks against militias. Ten militia members were killed in Bawa. Air strikes in Dumburum and Munhaye reportedly killed 30 people. (ACLED, July 9, 2019)

In late June 2019, Boko Haram attacks on farmers and local communities in Borno state killed 29 civilians. In the state of Yobe, the Boko Haram attacked a military base in Goniri. Several Boko Haram fighters were reportedly killed. (ACLED, July 1, 2019)

On June 16, 2019, there was a triple suicide attack by the Boko Haram in Konduga, carried out by three children. 30 people were reportedly killed. 42 people were killed during military operations in the Baga area [in Borno state] against bases at Boko Haram and ISWA. (ACLED, June 25, 2019)

On June 14, 2019, the Boko Haram attacked a military base in Kareto, in the state of Borno. A military man was killed and the insurgents stole weapons and vehicles. In the Shiroro area, Niger state, 62 civilians were killed in attacks by an unknown armed group on eight villages. (ACLED, June 17, 2019)

In early June, 20 people involved in the fighting were killed in military operations against the Boko Haram in Borno state. In the state of Zamfara, 16 civilians were killed in a militia attack on the village of Kanoma on June 3, 2019. On June 1, 2019, eight civilians were killed in an attack by a militia in the village of Lilo. (ACLED, June 11, 2019)

In the attack by the Boko Haram on an IDP convoy in Borno state on May 26, 2019, 25 people, including five soldiers, were killed. The Boko Haram also attacked the Bakassi IDP camp in Borno state, killing five civilians. The city of Maiduguri, Borno State, was also the target of a Boko Haram attack on May 28, 2019, but no deaths were confirmed. (ACLED, June 4, 2019)

Despite efforts to fight terrorism, the Boko Haram faction ISWA was able to expand its area of ​​operation between January 1 and June 30, 2019. In January 2019, Boko Haram took over control of the city of Rann at short notice. According to the Nigerian police, 189 terrorist attacks were carried out in the northern states of Nigeria between January and April 2019, with 453 people killed and 201 kidnapped. (UN Security Council, July 5, 2019, p. 4)

117 people were killed and several homes, farms and livestock were destroyed in Kajuru and Kachia, Kaduna state. Between January and April 2019, around 497 people were killed and 385 kidnapped in attacks by armed bandits, cattle thieves and militias in the state of Zamfara. (UN Security Council, July 5, 2019, pp. 4-5)

Between April 7 and 9, 2019, unknown gunmen attacked villages in Katsina state. At least 47 people were killed in the ensuing clashes with local vigilante groups. In the state of Zamfara, the Nigerian Air Force attacked positions of 'bandits', including herdsmen in forest areas, killing dozens of people. " (ACLED, April 16, 2019, p. 2)

“On March 30, 2019, armed men attacked the villages of Kursasa, Kurya and Gidan Achali (Shinkafi Local Government Area) in the north-western state [Zamfara, note by ACCORD]. According to the villagers, more than 40 people, mostly farmers, were killed. According to the police, only ten people are said to have been killed on a farm in the village of Kursasa. " (BAMF, April 1, 2019, p. 4)

“On the morning of 02/23/19, shortly before the polling stations opened, Maiduguri (capital of Borno state) was struck by several explosions and gunfire. According to security sources, Boko Haram fighters are said to have attacked the city with grenades. However, the attackers were pushed back by soldiers. According to official army information, the noise was a military exercise. On February 23, 2019, the ISWA (Islamic State in West Africa) group, split off from the terrorist organization Boko Haram, announced that they had attacked the airport, an army base and a government building in Maiduguri. […] On February 18, 2019, alleged fighters of the terrorist organization Boko Haram attacked a group of firewood and charcoal traders near Koshebe (Jere Local Government Area, Borno state) who were in the bush. At least 18 of them were killed. " (BAMF, February 25, 2019, p. 5)

“On February 12th, 2019, fighters from the IS-WA (Islamic State in West Africa) group, which had split off from the terrorist organization Boko Haram, attacked the car convoy of the governor of Borno, Kashim Shettima.He was traveling from Maiduguri on Dikwa-Ngala Road to an election campaign event in Gam-boru-Ngala (headquarters of the Ngala Local Government Area). According to the Shettima spokesman, three people in the convoy were said to have been killed in the attack. Sometimes up to ten dead and several kidnapped people are reported in the press. According to ISWA, which claimed responsibility for the attack on February 13, 2019, there are said to have been 42 fatalities. " (BAMF, February 18, 2019, p. 6)

According to official information, the bodies of 66 people, including 22 children and 12 women, who had been killed by "criminal elements" were discovered in eight villages in the Kujuru area of ​​Kaduna state. (BBC, February 15, 2019)

The BAMF also mentions the incident and further reports: “According to Maisamari Dio, leader of the predominant Christian Adara ethnic group in the Kujuru area, Muslim Fulani attacked an Adara village on February 10, 2019 and killed several people. The Adara then undertook retaliatory attacks on Fulani. " (BAMF, February 18, 2019, p. 6)

“On the morning of January 28, 2019, fighters of the Boko Haram took the village of Rann (Borno state, administrative seat of the Kala Balge Local Government Area) about seven kilometers from the Cameroonian border in the Lake Chad region without a fight. According to Amnesty International, they killed at least 60 residents and, according to an analysis of satellite images, burned hundreds of buildings. The Nigerian army had left the city the day before the terrorist attack after the Cameroonian units of the Multi-National Joint Task Force (MNJTF), which were also stationed in the city to protect the population, had been withdrawn a short time beforehand. Boko Haram occupied the city of Rann, which also houses a camp with tens of thousands of internally displaced persons, for one day on January 14, 2019 after fighting with the army. According to UN information, a total of around 35,000 civilians fled across the border to Cameroon as a result of the two attacks by the Boko Haram on Rann. "(BAMF, February 4, 2019, p. 4)

On January 14, 2019, the Boko Haram attacked the city of Rann in the state of Borno, displacing more than 9,000 people. Large areas were burned to the west and south of Rann. Over 100 buildings were destroyed or badly damaged by the fire. (AI, January 18, 2019)

Amnesty International published a report in December 2018 on clashes between shepherds and farmers, particularly in the northern parts of the country. The organization documented 312 attacks and retaliatory attacks in 22 states and Abuja between January 2016 and October 2018. At least 3,641 people were estimated to have been killed, 406 injured, 5,000 homes burned down and 182,530 people displaced. The organization visited 56 communities in Adamawa, Benue, Kaduna, Taraba, and Zamfara states while preparing the report. (AI, December 17, 2018, pp. 6-16)

(States: Abia, Akwa-Ibom, Anambra, Bayelsa, Cross River State, Delta, Edo, Enugu, Imo, Ondo, Rivers)

4.1. General information

The Niger Delta in the south of Nigeria is rich in resources but affected by insecurity (ICG, September 29, 2015, p. 1). The conflict in the Niger Delta is marked by vandalism at oil facilities, massive thefts related to oil production, protests over environmental pollution, kidnappings for ransom, insecurity and violence between communities. The demands of the various militant groups varied, but often include greater autonomy for the region and a larger share of the revenues from the oil business (CRS, July 18, 2012, p. 13). The uprising led by the Movement for the Emancipation of the Niger Delta (MEND) had brought the Nigerian oil industry and income from exports to a standstill. In June 2009 the uprising was ended by an amnesty for the insurgents. A certain stability could be restored (ICG, September 29, 2015, p. 1). As a result of the amnesty, there was a reduction in the level of violence, but it rose again in 2014 (USDOS, June 25, 2015, Executive Summary). The presidency of President Jonathan from 2010 to 2015, cash benefits and training for the former insurgents and agreements with leaders of the insurrection kept the conflicts under control. (ICG, September 29, 2015, p. 1).

In 2016, however, new militant groups making various demands took up arms again. While the names of the groups have changed, there is no doubt that this is "old wine in new bottles". The new militant groups continue to insist on resource control and carry out attacks on oil facilities. (African Center for the Constructive Resolution of Disputes, September 12, 2017) xvii

Since the government held talks with ethnic and political leaders in the region in November 2016, there have been no major attacks on oil facilities by militant groups in the Niger Delta. Nevertheless, the situation in the region remains fragile. Attacks on Igbos or other Southeners in the north could lead some militant groups in the Niger Delta to attack oil facilities again, either to pressure the government to end anti-Igbo violence or to cover up criminal activity. (ICG, July 20, 2017)

Criminal groups abducted civilians in the Niger Delta and the southeast in 2019 - often to demand ransom. Kidnappings at sea continued to be widespread as insurgents tried to finance themselves through piracy and similar crimes. (USDOS, March 11, 2020, Section 1b)

4.2. Current situation

In Delta state, clashes between shepherds and farmers on February 13 killed 14 people in Uwheru. (ICG, March 2020)

On January 3, 2020, pirates killed four members of the Navy and kidnapped three foreign workers in Bayelsa state. On January 7th, the navy freed the kidnapped men. (ICG, February, 2020)

In November 2019, militias from the political parties All Progressives Congress (APC) and the People's Democratic Party (PDP) clashed in the city of Nembe, Bayelsa state. One person was killed and several others were wounded. In addition, six people were killed in the states of Bayelsa and Kogi on election day. Several electoral institutions also reported attacks on journalists and voters. (ACLED, November 19, 2019, p. 1)

Criminal groups kidnapped civilians in the Niger Delta and the southeast in 2018, often for ransom money. Abductions at sea were common. (USDOS, March 13, 2019, Section 1b)

A database of the Nigeriawatch [xx] project can be found under the following link, which can be searched for incidents of violence by state:

Further information on security-relevant developments can also be found at
the following link:

Further overview maps of incidents of violence in Nigeria can also be found under the following links:

(Access to all links on September 2, 2020)

  • ACLED - Armed Conflict Location & Event Data Project: Regional Overview - Africa April 16, 2019, April 16, 2019
    https://www.acleddata.com/2019/04/16/regional-overview-africa-16-april-2019/
  • ACLED - Armed Conflict Location & Event Data Project: Regional Overview - Africa 23 April 2019, 23 April 2019
    https://reliefweb.int/sites/reliefweb.int/files/resources/acleddata.com-Regional%20Overview%20%20Africa%2023%20April%202019.pdf
  • ACLED - Armed Conflict Location & Event Data Project: Regional Overview - Africa April 16, 2019, April 16, 2019
    https://www.acleddata.com/2019/04/16/regional-overview-africa-16-april-2019/
  • ACLED - Armed Conflict Location & Event Data Project: Regional Overview - Africa 4 June 2019, 4 June 2019
    https://www.acleddata.com/2019/06/04/regional-overview-africa-4-june-2019/
  • ACLED - Armed Conflict Location & Event Data Project: Regional Overview - Africa 11 June 2019, 11 June 2019
    https://www.acleddata.com/2019/06/11/regional-overview-africa-11-june-2019/
  • ACLED - Armed Conflict Location & Event Data Project: Regional Overview - Africa 17 June 2019, 17 June 2019
    https://www.acleddata.com/2019/06/18/regional-overview-africa-17-june-2019/
  • ACLED - Armed Conflict Location & Event Data Project: Regional Overview - Africa 25 June 2019, 25 June 2019
    https://www.acleddata.com/2019/06/25/regional-overview-africa-25-june-2019/
  • ACLED - Armed Conflict Location & Event Data Project: Regional Overview - Africa 1 July 2019, 1 July 2019
    https://www.acleddata.com/2019/07/02/regional-overview-africa-1-july-2019/
  • ACLED - Armed Conflict Location & Event Data Project: Regional Overview - Africa 9 July 2019, 9 July 2019
    https://www.acleddata.com/2019/07/09/regional-overview-africa-9-july-2019/
  • ACLED - Armed Conflict Location & Event Data Project: Regional Overview - Africa 30 July 2019, 30 July 2019
    https://www.acleddata.com/2019/07/30/regional-overview-africa-30-july-2019/
  • ACLED - Armed Conflict Location & Event Data Project: Regional Overview - Africa (10 September 2019), 10 September 2019
    https://reliefweb.int/sites/reliefweb.int/files/resources/acleddata.com-Regional%20Overview%20%20Africa%2010%20September%202019.pdf
  • ACLED - Armed Conflict Location & Event Data Project: Regional Overview - Africa (17 September 2019), 17 September 2019
    https://reliefweb.int/sites/reliefweb.int/files/resources/acleddata.com-Regional%20Overview%20%20Africa%2017%20September%202019.pdf
  • ACLED - Armed Conflict Location & Event Data Project (Author): ACLED Regional Overview - Africa (25 September 2019), 25 September 2019
    https://reliefweb.int/sites/reliefweb.int/files/resources/acleddata.com-Regional%20Overview%20%20Africa%2025%20September%202019.pdf
  • ACLED - Armed Conflict Location & Event Data Project: Regional Overview - Africa (2 October 2019), October 2, 2019
    https://reliefweb.int/sites/reliefweb.int/files/resources/acleddata.com-Regional%20Overview%20%20Africa%202%20October%202019.pdf
  • ACLED - Armed Conflict Location & Event Data Project: Regional Overview - Africa 20 - 26 October 2019, 30 October 2019
    https://www.acleddata.com/2019/10/30/regional-overview-africa-20-26-october-2019/
  • ACLED - Armed Conflict Location & Event Data Project: Regional Overview - Africa (10-16 November 2019), 19 November 2019
    https://www.ecoi.net/en/file/local/2020560/acleddata.com-Regional+Overview+Africa+10++16+November+2019.pdf
  • ACLED - Armed Conflict Location & Event Data Project: Regional Overview: Africa 17 - 23 November 2019, 26 November 2019
    https://www.acleddata.com/2019/11/26/regional-overview-africa-17-23-november-2019/
  • African Center for the Constructive Resolution of Disputes: Towards ending conflict and insecurity in the Niger Delta region, September 12, 2017 (available on ReliefWeb)
    http://reliefweb.int/report/nigeria/towards-ending-conflict-and-insecurity-niger-delta-region
  • AI - Amnesty International: 'Our job is to shoot, slaughter and kill': Boko Haram's reign of terror in north east Nigeria [AFR 44/1360/2015], April 13, 2015 (available on ecoi.net)
    http://www.ecoi.net/file_upload/4543_1436264276_afr4413602015english.pdf
  • AI - Amnesty International: The Harvest of Death - Three Years of Bloody Clashes Between Farmers and Herders in Nigeria [AFR 44/9503/2018], December 17, 2018
    https://www.ecoi.net/en/file/local/1454624/1226_1545038604_afr4495032018english.PDF
  • AI - Amnesty International: Nigeria: Satellite imagery shows charred remains of Rann after Boko Haram attack, January 18, 2019
    https://www.ecoi.net/de/document/1456717.html
  • BAMF - Federal Office for Migration and Refugees (Germany): Briefing Notes from January 15, 2018, January 15, 2018
    https://www.ecoi.net/en/file/local/1423384/5734_1517490483_deutschland-bundesamt-fuer-migration-und-fluechtlinge-briefing-notes-15-01-2018-deutsch.pdf
  • BAMF - Federal Office for Migration and Refugees (Germany): Briefing Notes February 4, 2019, February 4, 2019
    https://www.ecoi.net/en/file/local/2003641/Deutschland___Bundesamt_f%C3%BCr_Migration_und_Fl%C3%BCchtlinge%2C_Briefing_Notes%2C_04.02.2019_%28deutsch%29.pdf
  • BAMF - Federal Office for Migration and Refugees (Germany): Briefing Notes February 18, 2019, February 18, 2019
    https://www.ecoi.net/en/file/local/2003659/Deutschland___Bundesamt_f%C3%BCr_Migration_und_Fl%C3%BCchtlinge%2C_Briefing_Notes%2C_18.02.2019_%28deutsch%29.pdf
  • BAMF - Federal Office for Migration and Refugees (Germany): Briefing Notes 25 February 2019, 25 February 2019
    https://www.ecoi.net/en/file/local/2003661/Deutschland___Bundesamt_f%C3%BCr_Migration_und_Fl%C3%BCchtlinge%2C_Briefing_Notes%2C_25.02.2019_%28deutsch%29.pdf
  • BAMF - Federal Office for Migration and Refugees (Germany): Briefing Notes 25 March 2019, 25 March 2019
    https://www.ecoi.net/en/file/local/2006124/Deutschland___Bundesamt_f%C3%BCr_Migration_und_Fl%C3%BCchtlinge%2C_Briefing_Notes%2C_25.03.2019_%28deutsch%29.pdf
  • BAMF - Federal Office for Migration and Refugees (Germany): Briefing Notes April 1, 2019, April 1, 2019
    https://www.ecoi.net/en/file/local/2006127/Deutschland___Bundesamt_f%C3%BCr_Migration_und_Fl%C3%BCchtlinge%2C_Briefing_Notes%2C_01.04.2019_%28deutsch%29.pdf
  • BBC: Who are Nigeria's Boko Haram Islamists? May 4, 2015
    http://www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-13809501
  • BBC News: Nigerian city of Maiduguri 'attacked by five child bombers', October 2, 2015
    http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-34423311#sa-ns_mchannel=rss&ns_source=PublicRSS20-sa
  • BBC News: Dozens of bodies found in north-west Nigeria, February 15, 2019
    https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-47259631
  • CFR - Council on Foreign Relations: Nigeria Security Tracker; Mapping Violence in Nigeria, undated
    http://www.cfr.org/nigeria/nigeria-security-tracker/p29483
  • CRS - Congressional Research Service: Nigeria: Current Issues and U.S. Policy, November 15, 2013
    http://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc272109/m1/1/high_res_d/RL33964_2013Nov15.pdf
  • CRS - Congressional Research Service: Nigeria: Current Issues and U.S. Policy, February 1, 2019
    https://crsreports.congress.gov/product/pdf/RL/RL33964
  • Die Zeit: Boko Haram: The essentials about the Nigerian terror group, last updated: November 18, 2015
    http://www.zeit.de/politik/ausland/boko-haram-ueberblick
  • FfP - Fund for Peace: Voices of Peace from Nigeria, April 21, 2014
    http://library.fundforpeace.org/blog-20140421-nigeriapeace
  • FFP - Fund for Peace: Niger Delta Conflict Tracker: Q2, 2017, August 24, 2017
    http://library.fundforpeace.org/library/501011708-nigeriaconflicttracker.pdf
  • GIZ - German Society for International Cooperation: Nigeria, undated
    http://www.giz.de/de/weltweit/1902.html
  • GIZ - German Society for International Cooperation: Nigeria, History and the State, December 2015
    http://liportal.giz.de/nigeria/geschichte-staat/
  • HRW - Human Rights Watch: Nigeria: Deadly Crackdown on Shia Protest, July 24, 2019 (available on ecoi.net)
    https://www.ecoi.net/en/document/2013225.html
  • HRW - Human Rights Watch: Nigerian Security Forces to Enforce Social Distancing, March 26, 2020
    https://www.ecoi.net/de/dokument/2027181.html
  • ICG - International Crisis Group: Curbing Violence in Nigeria (I): The Jos Crisis, December 17, 2012 (available on ecoi.net)
    http://www.ecoi.net/file_upload/1226_1355999247_196-curbing-violence-in-nigeria-i-the-jos-crisis.pdf
  • ICG - International Crisis Group: Curbing Violence in Nigeria (II): The Boko Haram Insurgency, April 3, 2014 (available on ecoi.net)
    http://www.ecoi.net/file_upload/1226_1396951718_216-curbing-violence-in-nigeria-ii-the-boko-haram-insurgency.pdf
  • ICG - International Crisis Group: Curbing Violence in Nigeria (III): Revisiting the Niger Delta, September 29, 2015 (available on ecoi.net)
    http://www.ecoi.net/file_upload/1226_1443530552_231-curbing-violence-in-nigeria-iii-re-visiting-the-niger-delta.pdf
  • ICG - International Crisis Group: Nigeria: Growing Insecurity on Multiple Fronts, July 20, 2017 (available on ecoi.net)
    http://www.ecoi.net/local_link/344366/487917_de.html
  • ICG - International Crisis Group: Herders against Farmers: Nigeria’s Expanding Deadly Conflict, September 19, 2017 (available on ecoi.net)
    http://www.ecoi.net/file_upload/1226_1505986246_252-nigerias-spreading-herder-farmer-conflict.pdf
  • ICG - International Crisis Group: CrisisWatch; Tracking Conflict Worldwide; March 2020, April 2020
    https://www.crisisgroup.org/crisiswatch/database?location%5B%5D=28&date_range=custom&from_month=03&from_year=2020&to_month=03&to_year=2020
  • ICG - International Crisis Group: CrisisWatch; Tracking Conflict Worldwide; February 2020, March 2020
    https://www.crisisgroup.org/crisiswatch/database?location%5B%5D=28&date_range=custom&from_month=02&from_year=2020&to_month=02&to_year=2020
  • ICG - International Crisis Group: CrisisWatch; Tracking Conflict Worldwide; January 2020, February 2020
    https://www.crisisgroup.org/crisiswatch/database?location%5B%5D=28&date_range=custom&from_month=01&from_year=2020&to_month=01&to_year=2020
  • ICG - International Crisis Group: CrisisWatch; Tracking Conflict Worldwide; May 2020, June 2020
    https://www.crisisgroup.org/crisiswatch/database?location%5B%5D=28&date_range=custom&from_month=05&from_year=2020&to_month=05&to_year=2020
  • ICG - International Crisis Group: CrisisWatch; Tracking Conflict Worldwide; June 2020, July 2020
    https://www.crisisgroup.org/crisiswatch/database?location%5B%5D=28&date_range=custom&from_month=06&from_year=2020&to_month=06&to_year=2020
  • ICG - International Crisis Group: CrisisWatch; Tracking Conflict Worldwide; July 2020, August 2020
    https://www.crisisgroup.org/crisiswatch/database?location%5B%5D=28&date_range=custom&from_month=07&from_year=2020&to_month=07&to_year=2020
  • Nigeriawatch: The Database; List of events, without a date
    http://www.nigeriawatch.org/index.php?urlaction=evtListe&cherche=1
  • P4P - Partners for Peace: Peace Map, undated
    http://www.p4p-nigerdelta.org/peace-map/
  • Thomson Reuters: Suspected Islamists kill at least 65 in northeast Nigeria: state TV, July 28, 2019
    https://www.reuters.com/article/us-nigeria-security-idUSKCN1UN0MM
  • UNHCR - UN High Commissioner for Refugees: International Protection Considerations with regard to people fleeing northeastern Nigeria (the states of Borno, Yobe and Adamawa) and surrounding region - Update II, October 2016 (available on ecoi.net) http: // www. ecoi.net/file_upload/90_1476687829_57ebb35c4.pdf
  • UN Security Council: Activities of the United Nations Office for West Africa and the Sahel; Report of the Secretary-General [S / 2019/549], July 5, 2019 (available on ecoi.net)
    https://www.ecoi.net/en/file/local/2013221/S_2019_549_E.pdf
  • USDOS - US Department of State: Country Report on Human Rights Practices 2014 - Nigeria, June 25, 2015 (available on ecoi.net)
    http://www.ecoi.net/local_link/306263/429642_en.html
  • USDOS - US Department of State: Country Report on Terrorism 2017 - Chapter 5 - Boko Haram, September 19, 2018 (available on ecoi.net)
    https://www.ecoi.net/de/dokument/1445026.html
  • USDOS - US Department of State: Country Report on Human Rights Practices 2018 - Nigeria, March 13, 2019
    https://www.ecoi.net/en/document/2004182.html
  • USDOS - US Department of State: Country Report on Terrorism 2018 - Chapter 1 - Nigeria, November 1, 2019
    https://www.ecoi.net/de/dokument/2019164.html
  • USDOS - US Department of State: Country Report on Human Rights Practices 2019 - Nigeria, March 11, 2020
    https://www.ecoi.net/de/dokument/2026341.html

i The German Society for International Cooperation (GIZ) is a state development cooperation organization of the Federal Republic of Germany.

ii The Congressional Research Service (CRS) is the research service of the United States Congress.

iii The Fund for Peace (FfP) is an independent, not-for-profit research and education organization headquartered in Washington, D.C., whose work aims to help prevent violent conflict and promote sustainable security.

iv The US Department of State (USDOS) is the US Department of State.

v British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British broadcaster.

vi The Science and Politics Foundation (SWP) in Berlin is a foundation under civil law and the sponsor of the German Institute for International Politics and Security.

vii The International Crisis Group (ICG) is an independent, not-for-profit, non-governmental organization that uses information and analysis to prevent and resolve violent conflicts.

viii Agence France-Presse (AFP) is an international news agency.

ix Human Rights Watch (HRW) is an international human rights organization.

x The UN Security Council is a United Nations organ responsible for maintaining peace and security.

xi The Armed Conflict Location & Event Data Project (ACLED) is a project that collects and analyzes data on conflicts and processes data on crises.

xii The BAMF is the German Federal Office for Migration and Refugees

xiii Die Zeit is a German weekly newspaper

xiv Amnesty International (AI) is an international human rights organization.

xv The Institute for Economics and Peace (IEP) is a Sydney-based think tank that works to better understand the social and economic factors that lead to a more peaceful society.

xvi United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) is the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees.

xvii The African Center for the Constructive Resolution of Disputes is a South African civil society organization active in conflict prevention across Africa.

This topic dossier is based on a time-limited research exclusively on ecoi.net. It is intended as an introduction to or overview of a topic and does not represent an opinion on the content of an application for asylum or other international protection. All translations are working translations for which no guarantee can be given. Chronologies do not claim to be complete. Each statement is referenced with a link to the corresponding document.