Where did the subcultures go?
And only in the Crimea did the Goths exist at least until the 16th and maybe even until the 17th-18th. Century as an independent people. Invaded the Crimea in the III century AD. Gothic tribes settle mainly in southwestern Crimea and, after adopting the Byzantine model Christian beliefs, begin to blend with the local Alanian population while embracing the language and culture of the Byzantine Greeks. Archaeological data show that in the 6th-7th centuries Century Crimean Gothic women wore a typical Germanic costume that contained precious brooches, earrings, bracelets and amazingly beautiful massive buckles with the image of an eagle's head (the so-called "eagle head"). Name because of the mixture with the Alans (ancestors of the modern Ossetians) medieval travelers and modern scientists the Crimean Goths "Gotalans" or even "Alanogoths".
After the Tatars invaded Crimea in the 13th century, some Goths began to use Tatars in addition to Greek. Even in the second half of the 16th century (and, according to some sources, until the end of the 18th century), the Gothic population of Crimea continued to use their native Germanic speakers as the language of home communication. This unique dialect is chronologically the newest relic of the East Germanic languages spoken by the European Goths.
In 1475 new conquerors - the Ottoman Turks - invaded the Crimea. After that, the Greco-Gothic population begins to “Tatarise” culturally (and possibly ethnically and religiously) and loses its Gothic identity. Nevertheless, as early as the 19th century, some ethnographers and historians considered the blue-eyed and blond-haired population of the Greek villages of Mariupol and the mountainous Crimea to be descendants of the Goths. During the Second World War attempts were made to use the "Gothic theme" by Nazi ideologues who worked out plans to rename the Crimea "Gotenland" and to populate the peninsula with ethnic Germans.
Where did the goths go?
At the beginning of the 8th century. There were only 80,000 Goths in the Iberian Peninsula. When the Moors conquered Gothia, the Goths realized that the best way to stay close to power was to convert to Islam. They took on Muslim names, but their descendants long remembered that they came from the Goth Christians. Christians called people who converted to Islam renegade (Traitor).
The first at the beginning of the 8th century. The count of the Tarragon region named Fortun, son of Cassius, converted to Islam. His descendants came to be known as Banu Kasi - the children of Cassius. A century and a half later, it was the richest family in northern Spain. And one of the Banu Kasi-Musa then took possession of the land from Zaragoza to Toledo and even opposed the emir!
Many renegade Goths held important positions in the emirate of Cordoba.
Cordoba had a brisk trade with Germanic countries. In this picture, Caliph Abdarrahman III receives the ambassador of the German Emperor Otto I.
In the IX century. Some of them started establishing their states directly in Andalusia. Omar ibn Hafsun was particularly famous. He tried out many professions, was a shoemaker, hired soldier and built a robber's nest in the south in the Babastro Mountains in 884.
He soon issued a manifesto calling on both Muslims and Christians to fight the emir. And by 886 a vast area covering a third of all of Andalusia recognized its power. Ibn Hafsun approached Cordoba with an army, and the emir himself recognized his condition. Other areas cunningly separated from Andalusia.
But gradually the movement of Ibn Hafsun, which was themed to fight the power of the emir, began to fade, especially when he converted to Christianity himself and began to fanatically persecute former Muslim comrades-in-arms. His daughter founded a strict monastery in Babastro where martyrs of the faith were trained. Eventually Ibn Hafsun was left with a few like-minded people and had to hire soldiers in Africa.
The Cordoba emir Abdarrahman III (r. 912-961) ended this lengthy adventure. Ibn Hafsun himself died in 917, but his sons defended the fortress in Babastro until 928. Soon the rebels in other regions of Andalusia submitted, and the Goths eventually left the arena of history.
Ambassador of the Byzantine King Constantine VII. Porphyrogenitus at a reception at the Caliph Abdarrahman III. There were close economic, political and cultural ties between Byzantium and Cordoba. Marble and mosaic malt were supplied from Byzantium for the construction of palaces and mosques.
Where has the emo gone?
Where has the emo gone?
Veterans of the movement remember
In the mid-2000s, emo was the most widespread and visible subculture among youth. These were young people listening to American emotional hardcore, wearing weird bangs, skinny jeans, and numerous scarves and badges with black and white or black and pink prints. The State Duma feared that emo would encourage suicide, skinheads saw ideological enemies in the emotional subculture, and among school children the term "emosax" was a universal answer to all questions. At some point the emo wave subsided. In contrast to other subcultures that can be found in city squares and squares, emo is neither visible nor audible. VOS spoke to veterans of the emo movement to understand what it was and where it was going.
Jacob, 24 years old
Was an emo boy from 2005 to 2007. It all started with me, the stump is clear, with unrequited love and a sea of alcohol. Then I heard about music and then about the direction. For me it meant being part of a good company of people who supported your taste in music and basically wanted to stand out from the crowd like any teenager. There was no social position. It all looks more like a hobby club and just a meeting. They looked for a list (vacant apartments of friends or acquaintances in which one could hang out in a large crowd at night), went to concerts (Gigi), drank cheap alcohol, blazers and jaguars. And the ideals in this culture itself are simple: to be sincere, not to hide your feelings and emotions, but of course the majority do not care.
I got dressed in skate shops because in the 2000s it was extremely problematic to buy light and tight things, especially skinny jeans. The main thing is to emphasize your thinness. From the music I heard Emocore / Screamo / Emoviolence because this music came from the USA. Bands like The Used, Drop Dead Gorgeous, Beginning to End, Orchid, Funeral for a Friend, Underoath. The Russian alternative scene, but in my opinion, with the exception of the origami group, we only played nu metal and metalcore, not emocore.
I left in 2007 when a bunch of so-called poseurs appeared who simply turned this culture into fashion and no longer had any meaning. I decided to only remove the external attributes, piercings and long bangs so as not to classify myself as one of them. But I still like that kind of music, I like to listen to it. The subculture is there and has not gone anywhere, just the time has passed when every third was emo, all the fagots just stayed there as it is no longer fashionable to look like that. In my opinion there are people who are only on the subject.
Ellina, 20 years old
Has been emo since around 2009. I was small but immersed in that subculture very deeply. Everything serious started in 2012. Those were great times. At this moment I don't want to classify myself as belonging to a subculture, every person is individual. But it was emo culture that made that clear to me. You know emo is the most peaceful subculture, with all the positions it represents, I agree.
There was also a misunderstanding on the part of the people. But they are all a gray mass, they will never understand what it is like to express their feelings openly, they thought we were crazy, so be it. But we don't drive into society and do what we want. The emo spirit will likely stay with me forever.
Anton, 20 years old
I got emo in 2008. At first it was just a cool look for me, music, I felt it was close to me. I later delved deeper into the ideology of culture and firmly believed that I needed it. The essence of culture was the detachment from public opinion, not following the stereotypes, patterns and prejudices established by society, positioning yourself as an autonomous unit, not being part of the system, free expression, free expression of emotions and opinions, none Afraid to accept who you are, openness.
I listen to emocore, both domestically and abroad, early post-hardcore, mall emo, pop punk. In 2008 I put on what I wear now. Narrow clothing, hoodies, t-shirts, shirts, sweaters, rather elegant and not brutal clothing.
The subculture is alive, the confirmation of this is the emo public with a large number of subscribers, the fashion is just over and those who were in it just because it was fashionable. Now they belong to the subculture that is now in vogue. To me, they weren't emo, just mods. Those who were ideologically in this movement stayed in it. In fact, it is now slowly becoming fashionable to "return in 2007". The whole essence of subculture lies in the views of the world, I've always said that emo are not, emo are born. Would it be interesting for me not to have a certain worldview, a certain state of mind, a certain way of thinking?
Three emo girls (in chorus) Bangy,
Mardzhera, Polly_Di, each 22 years old
We kind of got emo in 2006. A kind of meeting was formed and everyone worked in the theater and manega. And the rest is not true. All of their truths knew each other. And the left one came without rubbing and we threw eggs at it. The main message was that it is important not to hide true emotions in order to be who you are. Maybe it was a way of expressing myself, Feige knows. At school all the teachers thought I was a Goth. It was just fashionable. That's all. All were Emorians and we weren't that different. Just like then, everyone in "Solyanka" started hanging out. And now it is fashionable to go to techno parties.
Vasily, 20 years old
At the emo get-together (I suggest calling it a get-together), since 2007 I have been the culmination of the popularization of this culture in the sense that this culmination is linked to its blossoming, the acquisition of the status of the then dominant youth subculture to such an extent that, due to its popularity, it no longer resembles a subculture on this basis, but has become a mass culture that includes large strata of young people. This emo wave hasn't left me aside either. Many of my friends and acquaintances gradually began to master a new style of behavior, clothes, new music and to adopt and copy all these attributes from one another. It was really a wave that took in more and more new people every day. As we know, under the pressure of the wave, it's difficult to withstand and even be in such a weight class - I was only 13-14 years old at the time. And according to all the laws of physics, this wave carried me long and far. I succumbed to the general euphoria.
Now many have jobs, families, but for this minority, who stayed in the crowd until 2010 after their popularity fell, those ideals stayed lifelong, and friends in the movement became friends in life. So far, we have been gathering and arranging meetings in large corporations. All are not the same teenagers as they were back then. But the so-called spirit lives on. Everyone remembers the past - the time of freedom and negligence, childlike joy and discomfort, first love. This is probably why many of us have matured in our heads but not aged in our hearts. We can say with confidence that even then established ideals are still manifesting in communication between us. I'm emo as long as there is someone to hang out with. I am emo until my soul and heart grow old and die. We're getting smaller, but this culture will live forever. Despite the decline in the popularity of the emo movement, there are still teenagers interested in the emo culture and engaging in the get-together.
Ksenia, 20 years old
It all started in 2007, I was 12 if I'm not mistaken and lasted up to 14. How it happened I don't know. I have often come to Moscow since childhood, saw everything, was interested. And there were people like that in our city. Oddly enough, they are now successful, many have moved to America, are in business, and I remember them in packs with weird bangs. Everyone already has families, children. I was the smallest in the company.
There were fights a couple of times. Boys came up to us and started talking rude, but luckily, for the most part, we were able to explain that there was nothing wrong with that. Once my boyfriend and I had an argument with two boys and they were 25 years old. A boy, our friend, came up, he parted us. And at school there were a lot of skirmishes with teachers and classmates. I didn't bother about the school uniform and I wanted to wear black and pink leggings on my arms and shave my temples. I smoked, heard rock, and dressed strangely. Mom was against all of this, she kept cursing but decided I would get over it - and so it happened. They cut my side bang one day and that was it. That was all over. I sat and cried and in the evening I calmed down and felt good.
It's very fun to say that I grew up. It's just that at some point you understand that showing your feelings and letting people know what you're really thinking isn't always good. And I don't want to stand out, I want to do the same thing as you, but not stand out anymore. Any desire to gather in the center of the city in pink disappears.
It was fashionable to have light color combinations, light with black, and to show such positive and negative emotions that everything in your life is streaked. There were girls who wore pink tutus, striped T-shirts, and leggings.
Thanks to the subculture, I started to understand people in many ways, their bad points. At that time, I stopped loving my hometown, I wanted to go there. It seemed that all people are nice and wonderful, but it turned out they weren't.
The era of emo is over and thanks to the acquaintances I got in the 2000s, I started getting tattooed. People appeared who put me on the path of a musician who was far from emo culture. Although the appearance remained similar. The funny thing is, a lot of the "ponies" I knew have become completely different people. Someone runs, paints cars and walls. Someone became a soccer player. Still, the majority became musicians. Someone began to lead an ordinary family life.
Our regular reader Tatiana from St. Petersburg is interested in: “5 years ago there were so many subcultures. especially in big cities. There were goths, punks, emo and other "non-standard" teenagers. Today there are no subcultures as such. well actually no! Today every third is covered with tattoos, wearing rock'n'roll clothes (luckily fashion dictates it) and coloring their hair in all the colors of the rainbow. and there are practically no specifically formed subcultures. That's why?) Thanks! "
We asked our expert, practicing psychologist with great experience, Olga Stadnitskayathat influenced people's mentality. This is discussed in our publication.
Where have subcultures gone in Russia?
Five or seven years ago there were a lot of strange looking people in the glorious city of St. Petersburg. At almost every step one could meet a group of comrades from puberty and post-puberty who stood out clearly against the general background. We will not delve into the typology or classification of subcultures and countercultures. Much has been written about it without us.
Emo is a young man
The question is, where did they go? Why can't you see mohawks, corsets and balls?
That said, sometimes you still come across freaks with varying degrees of neglect, sometimes metrosexuals meet. But against the backdrop of rampant democracy inherent in modern fashion trends, the external characteristics of subcultures somehow faded.
After a quick poll among friends and acquaintances of different age groups, the author has outlined two main versions.
Version 1: Everyone fled to the net
For example, young people tend to believe that the reason lies in the network.Until recently, a young man had to go out and look around to find like-minded people and solve problems of self-identification. Now the need for it is gone. Get on the internet and become someone without leaving your chair. You can be an elf, a troll, a hikkimori, a fan of a musical group, or the whole genre ... When you're not sitting in a chair, you can find people with similar interests or worldviews and meet them in real life. In this regard, the author is personally of great interest for flash mobs and profleshes. The abundance of internet communities really offers unlimited opportunities for young people.
We will not evaluate this phenomenon. Let us just notice one thing: young people who are online are not conspicuous.
Version 2: nothing to fight
Another point of view that the author likes to stick to without denying the internet version goes something like this: In addition to external attributes, subcultures have a certain ideology within them. Again, we will not delve into the analysis of the characteristics of value systems and the degree of aggressiveness of different subcultures. Not about that.
We will also not go into the psychological requirements of young people's desire to protest. More has been written about that than about subcultures. Note the following: The ideology and system of group values of each subculture almost always contradicted the leading official ideology.
Let us try to imagine Russia as such a great parent during the period of "developed socialism" and "building communism". In addition, this parent knows exactly what their children need and consistently implements the values and ideas that the context of the time demands.
And we will represent individual subcultures in the form of a child. Children, as it should be, protest. Ideologically harmful proposals are smuggled out of the "wild west": hippies, rock, punk, etc. etc. Children have the choice to express protest reactions.
The choice of an alternative ideology is determined by the temperament, degree of aggressiveness and intellectual status of the adolescent.
The parents were punished, forbidden, re-educated, the children left "at home", licked their torn ears, but did not give up.
But what happened then happened. Perestroika hit Russia. The unified state ideology ordered people to live long and gave way to the absolute hype about democracy and pluralism. This process has been accompanied by the rapid growth of the most aggressive and challenging subcultures. At the same time, the more expressive their external properties became, the less ideological value content remained in them. It's understandable. During the cooking process, the tinder is always the first thing to do.
At present, the author has not seen any progress in the creation of a new, unified value system by the state - the parent. Accordingly, teenagers simply had nothing to fight and something to protest against. The hopes of the current authorities in the Republic of China are not yet justified. Orthodoxy does not fulfill the task of creating a uniform state value system.
And the movement of the Pastafarians with seven on their heads, which came about as a result of the attempt to revive spiritual values, is not yet attracted to the subculture either.
Yes, some young citizens are still trying to express themselves by venting the so-called "teenage reactions" with the help of dreadlocks dyed every color of the rainbow and piercings in the most unexpected parts of the body. But somehow fragmented, without ideology. Even attracting attention in such a way became problematic.
But that's even more interesting. It is believed, however, that the Internet offers young people more and more opportunities to adapt and socialize in real adult life. Or to escape reality - there were hippies who got hickey. Well, wait and see.
Today's youth for last year has changed a lot in appearance. Until recently, the gray mass of people was watered down by teenagers who wore wide trousers and arafets, hung huge crosses on their necks, pinned numerous badges on dresses and brightly colored pins on jeans.
Now it is rare to see teenagers in such clothes on the streets of Kachkanar. Everyone became the same. Even those who consider themselves "purely real boys and girls" increasingly donned floral, fitted, short-sleeved shirts and frayed jeans.
As a hairstyle on the heads of young people who yesterday wore punk mohawks, oblique bangs or haircuts to zero, today long, neatly styled hair, often colored or highlighted. Where have the same rockers, punks, hippies and emos gone? It turns out that they are still with us. It's just that some have stopped expressing their individuality so vividly through their looks, while others believe that the hated glamor is replacing fashion for their lifestyle. I've talked to the people who used to call themselves informal and that's what I found out.
Masha, 18 years old
It seems to me that they are fashionable. They stopped being noticed on the city streets to respond to them the way they would like. Some simply grow out of this childhood state and begin to dress normally, behave appropriately, change their style and view of the world. Instead, they are now glamorous girls and men who suit them. We are already used to it, today it is considered normal and acceptable to the crowd.
Nastya, 17 years old
I think most guys have gotten smarter. Maybe they are tired of the side glances and the eternal pursuit. Or maybe I just wanted to put on heels and a skirt and the guys take off the piercings and go to the rocking chair. Instead of the informal, there are now people who have emerged from an informal society. They were interested in completely different things, their views changed.
Why did I stop classifying myself as informal? I think because I was interested in another society, I matured.
Maxim, 17 years old
We're less because fashion has changed. But those who stopped seeing themselves as informal never were. They just wore appropriate clothing: sneakers, arafette, chains. By and large, none of these accessories matter much. The main thing is to live and feel like an informal person. There are informal teenagers in our city, and what is this stereotype that the informal has to be emo, goth or hippie? An informal person is a person with informal thinking.
Olya, 15 years old
In my opinion, it was just a fashionable wave for informal looks. When it was over, many put on regular clothing, removed their piercings, and cut off their bangs. There are, of course, and now people who can be called informal, but they don't care what others call them. They don't care, they don't run around town, punch their chests and say that they are informal.
I stopped classifying myself as an informal society, not because fashion is over. I just realized that no matter what people call themselves, they still stay who they are. So today I'm just me
Hydrangea, 19 years old
I think the exnephores have just matured and realized that this is not the main thing. No need to stand out from the crowd with brightly colored t-shirts, shocking hairstyles, and multiple piercings. In general, they grew out of it!
Who instead of them now? I don't even know what to say. Probably ordinary teenagers who do not seek to prove anything to anyone with their behavior and manners. Why did I leave the informal circle? I just grew up.
Light + Ka
Boys and girls? What do you think about it? Where have the informals gone? Why has fashion for the "emo" style disappeared? And how the concept of "informal" is generally deciphered.
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