Pascal is still used
Overview of the programming languages (2021)
This article is intended to give you an overview of the different programming languages and to show you that the programming languages themselves are not that different. The most common programming languages are briefly presented and explained here; these were taken from the so-called TIOBE index, which measures the popularity of programming languages. Which programming language should start with is not recommended here, even if there is a clear favorite. In this article you can read which one it is and why.
Programming languages in 2021
The following programming languages are briefly explained here:
- C and C ++
- C # (C Sharp)
- Visual Basic
- Delphi / Object Pascal
- HTML & CSS (beware of haters!)
The explanation briefly introduces the language and explains what can be programmed with the respective languages.
So you should have one get a good overview and find the correct programming language for your implementation.
You will also get a micro-insight into what this language actually looks like, so you will quickly notice that most languages are quite similar.
Few languages look completely different. The example that is used is of course not a functional program, it is only intended to provide an excerpt for understanding. But it contains all the basic elements that a modern programming language contains, these basic elements would be:
- Functions / methods
- Variables / objects
- Commands / instructions
If you don't understand these, no problem. You will learn these later anyway, no matter what language you start in.
ATTENTION: Do not choose the language because of the appearance! Choose the language that is most useful to you and with which you can gain long experience. With enough experience, switching to another programming language will be very easy for you.
So it seems that a normal app is being used and this app runs just as well on Android and iOS at the same time. The best part of it is that it saves you double programming work. So this language is actually the favorite for everyone who wants to create as many different computer programs as possible.
This programming language has established itself on millions of computers and devices.
Java is platform-independent, which means it runs just as well on Windows as it does on Linux or Mac OSX. Android also uses this programming language. So you can program applications, apps and games with Java.
Java is a very modern programming language and always contains the latest technical concepts from software development. What is unfortunately missing in the mobile area is mostly the support for Apple devices, so that you have to write separate source code for it.
Here is a java code snippet:
C and C ++
C and C ++ are the veterans in this collection of programming languages.
Almost all of today's operating systems have their origin in C, even today we still program in C and C ++ and the code still runs in our operating systems. C ++ is the extension of C to include the object-oriented approaches. In C ++ it is possible to use classes and objects.
C and C ++ are suitable for hardware-related programming, as these languages are translated into machine code. Operating systems, applications and games can be implemented with these languages and are very high-performance. Since you sometimes have to take care of storage handling and access yourself, it can be a bit complicated for beginners.
Here is an example in C (C ++ is similar):
C # (C Sharp)
C # is the consistent further development of C ++ by Microsoft. Its structure is very similar to Java, but has little to do with Java. With C # (C-Sharp) you can write applications with the .NET framework and games for PC and XBox are also possible with the XNA framework.
Like Java, this language is object-oriented. The possibilities to use C # programs on other platforms were limited until 2014. In the meantime, there is a platform-independent variant with .NET Core, which enables C # programs to be used on multiple platforms. So you are no longer limited to Windows and don't have to use a special framework like mono anymore.
The code snippet in C # looks something like this:
Often referred to as a beginner's language. The first version, BASIC, was actually intended as an entry-level language for programming beginners. Nowadays, Visual Basic is used as the language for applications in the .NET framework.
Visual Basic looks like this:
PHP is a language used in connection with website programming. The main purpose of PHP is to display a website and everything that happens in the background on the web server (so-called backend).
Here you can use the PHP program to influence which part and content of the website should be displayed. The PHP program is always started on the web server on which the website is hosted.
The code looks like this in PHP:
Python is very popular with beginners and arose from a hobby project. The name is not based on the type of snake, but on the comedian Monthy Python.
With Python you can write a lot of scripts up to and including full web servers. The extent to which the programs can be executed on different platforms depends on whether there is an executable Python version on the respective device and operating system.
Here is the code snippet for Python:
Delphi / Object Pascal
Pascal is one of the oldest programming languages and was developed in Switzerland. With the further developments Object Pascal in connection with Delphi one could write desktop programs for PC and notebooks. Many of the ideas from ObjectPascal and Delphi were adopted in C #.
Unfortunately, there aren't that many well-known libraries for Object Pascal anymore, which is why the language is slowly becoming less important.
The syntax looks something like this:
This language was specially developed by Apple for Apple devices.
And that has to be taken literally, because to be able to program Swift, you need XCode which is only available for the macOSX operating system.
So if you want to deal exclusively with the Apple platform and already have suitable devices at home, you should take a look at this language.
You just got a shock with the other languages because they are so text-heavy?
Okay, there is at least a little workaround for that too. Scratch is a language that is used purely to learn programming and was specially developed for children and young people.
Logically, only relatively small projects can be created with it, but they are inspiring. Small games, mini films and even the control of e.g. LEGO robots is possible. For an example of how to create a game in Scratch, check out our free Scratch tutorial. The language looks something like this (and the example program no longer makes any sense here):
HTML & CSS
These languages are actually not programming languages, but are often mentioned together with other programming languages.
These are important if you want to create websites and web applications. With HTML you describe the structure and content of your website and with CSS (Cascading Style Sheets) you determine how this HTML structure should be displayed.
If you want to start programming websites, the point you have to tackle is HTML and CSS. Obviously the example program cannot be shown in HTML / CSS.
SQL is a language with which one can make database queries. This allows a database to be created, filled and read out again.
This language is also often used in connection with websites. For example, to display an article in a web shop.
With SQL it is first important to learn how a database works and how to use it at all. Databases are the "high-performance" alternative to files, but they have a few specialties that you have to understand first.
Conclusion on the programming languages
This is just a small overview of programming languages that are still in use today.
Scratch is then the variant for children and adolescents who do not have that much experience with computers.
What would you create with which programming language? Comment below!
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