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Katzer, Gernot - Spice Dictionary

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  • Words: 238,772
  • Pages: 947
Gernot Katzer

Spice dictionary

eBook based on »Gernot Katzers Gewürzseiten« http://www-ang.kfunigraz.ac.at/~katzer/germ/

The order of the chapters has been adjusted and the "Alphabetical Index" of the online version has been replaced by the index available for download. Cyrillic, Hebrew and Asian characters could not be adopted. This eBook is not for sale

swift I / 2005

Introduction ● ● ● ● ●

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Definitions About Ingredients About Etymologies About Recipes About Ground Spices

Definitions According to the Austrian or German food law, “spices” are fresh or dried plants or parts of plants that are added to food to improve the taste; however, they must not be technically processed or mixed with other substances more than is necessary for preservation. Mixtures of different spices, mixtures of spices with other substances or preparations that replace spices are not spices in the sense of the law and are given special names. See the guidelines for spices and seasoning ingredients. You will see that this definition is quite narrow: it does not include many ingredients that serve the same purpose as spices: meat extract, dried fish, fish sauce, shrimp paste, soy sauce, fermented wheat, and others. This is probably due to the fact that these ingredients (apart from meat extract) have no tradition in Central Europe these days. Of course, sugar and salt are also not spices in the sense of the law. It should also be noted that the law makes no distinction between spices and herbs, as is common, for example, in English. I have followed this usage, and on the English-language pages of this site, too, harshly refers to a subset of the meaning of spice. It may be argued that this is not idiomatically correct English; That is correct, but the native English speakers also have to pay some price for the Internet to provide them with documents in their mother tongue (this is not a private campaign against English, but a lapidary statement about the dynamics of living languages).

Although a maximum of forty different aromatic plants are of worldwide importance today, considerably more are used regionally, in the region of their natural occurrence, for seasoning. Some of them are also sold in small quantities outside of this area and are used in ethnic restaurants or by tradition-conscious emigrants, others serve as medicine and are therefore available in western pharmacies. Some spices that were used extensively in Europe over the past centuries have now gone out of fashion and are no longer known to European consumers - mostly because they have been supplanted by other spices with a similar taste. It's my hobby, information both

to collect well-known and well-researched spices as well as exotic species and of course to cook tasty dishes with them. At the moment I own about 117 different aromatic plants in the form of dried plant parts and of course a few more that I could not identify. However, this is only a small fraction of all spices used worldwide: Especially in areas with a tropical climate, there are still many small-scale plants that are used in local cuisine, and which are mostly hardly studied, let alone traded.

About Ingredients It's best to say either a lot or very little about the ingredients of spices; it is a very large field that can usually only be presented in a confusing way through superficial considerations. Nevertheless, I would like to explain some terms that keep appearing in my spice articles. The substances that determine the flavoring properties of a plant are always secondary metabolic products, i.e. they play no role in the primary metabolism (the structure of the plant's own tissue and the structure and breakdown of energy-supplying molecules); thus they are not vital for the plant. In some cases it is assumed that they are waste products of the plant metabolism, but mostly the fragrances have a function in attracting potential pollinators or spreaders or in warding off predators. It is somewhat paradoxical that plants are grown by humans as food additives all over the world, although their fragrance is actually produced to scare off herbivorous animals! Although there are a large number of different classes of phytonutrients, most plants contain only a few. It is very often observed that botanically related plants also contain similar or even the same ingredients; this also explains why spices occur more frequently in some plant families and why other families do not produce any odorous plants at all. Only a very small part of the many classes of phytonutrients are of interest for the spices, since the members of many classes almost always taste repulsive. In detail, we are interested in the following from a culinary point of view: Terpenes: This is by far the most important class of odorous substances. Many of them have an aromatic smell that is somewhat reminiscent of turpentine; Turpentine is a mixture of terpenes that is extracted from conifers. Terpenes are very common secondary metabolic products, often with a low boiling point and therefore a strong odor. The name terpene actually only refers to hydrocarbons made up of isoprene units, but functionalized derivatives (alcohols, ethers, carboxylic acids, esters) of these hydrocarbons are often referred to as terpenes (terpene derivatives would be more correct). Furthermore, benzoid dehydration products of terpenes often occur, e.g. the phenol thymol, which is the main aromatic carrier in adiowan and thyme.

Depending on the size of the molecule, a distinction is made between mono-, sesqui-, di- and triterpenes, each with 10, 15, 20 and 30 carbon atoms. Of these, the monoterpenes in particular are extremely important; 90% of all spices owe most of their aroma to them. Monoterpenes are practically never species-specific, but occur in many different plants; the characteristic aroma of a spice is therefore due to a certain mixing ratio of monoterpenes. Monoterpenes are formed in practically all plant families; they are particularly common in the mint family (Lamiaceae) and umbellifers (Apiaceae), both of which contain a large number of aromatic plants. Considering their large number, it is surprising that only a relatively few of them are seriously toxic to humans; Most of the toxic monoterpenes are ketones, by the way. These include, for example, umbelliferone (from Californian laurel), pulegon (from pennyroyal) and a number of furanoid monoterpene ketones, such as those found in East Asian mint plants (e.g. perilla). Thujone (in wormwood, mugwort and sage as well as some cypress plants) is generally held responsible for the harmful effects of absinthe, a liqueur popular at the beginning of the 20th century (see Eberraute); Another toxic monoterpene ketone is camphor, the pleasant smell of which could easily hide its considerable toxicity. Camphor can be found in many mint plants (Lamiaceae), e.g. rosemary, sage and the somewhat more distantly related Aztec sweet herb (Lippia dulcis, verbena family). The “bio-insecticide” pyrethrum should also be mentioned here; Pyrethrum and its derivatives are monoterpenes with an abnormal structure that are found in some Asteraceae. They are quite poisonous to insects, but relatively harmless to mammals. A very unusual monoterpene is cantharidin, which is not obtained from a plant, but from a beetle (the "Spanish fly") and which was occasionally misused as an aphrodisiac in the past. It shows very extreme toxicity in humans; interestingly, it is much less dangerous for most mammals. Higher terpenes are less volatile and therefore of lower olfactory value. Although some sesquiterpenes are widespread in the plant kingdom, very many are restricted to certain families or genera. Some sesquiterpenes are of great importance in aromatic plants, e.g. in cinnamon species, conifers (juniper) and especially in the ginger family (Zingiberaceae), e.g. ginger, galangal or turmeric. A non-volatile sesquiterpene derivative of culinary interest is polygodial (tadeonal), a pungent, pungent-tasting partially unsaturated dialdehyde. It is responsible for the pungent taste of water pepper and Tasmanian pepper. Di- and triterpenes are mostly family- to species-specific. Because of their molecular size, they usually have no odor, but often taste bitter or astringent. Some diterpenes are also pharmacodynamically very active substances, which, depending on the boundary conditions, make them effective remedies or dangerous toxins; so is z. B. the toxicity of the notorious "Pontic honey" from the Turkish Black Sea coast

attributed to diterpene-containing nectar from rhododendron species. Accordingly, diterpenes rarely occur in aromatic plants; However, phenolic di- and triterpenes are common in the labial family (see hyssop). Triterpene glycosides are called saponins, and some of them are powerful blood poisons because of their haemolytic effect; however, due to their low absorbability via the oral route, they are rather harmless. The glycyrrhicin from licorice is the rare example of a tasty saponin. Of the tetraterpenes, the carotenoids represent the most important group. These are characteristically yellow to orange colored long-chain unsaturated hydrocarbons made up of eight isoprene units and their derivatives; all plants contain them, and many vegetables and fruits owe their yellow color to them. Most carotenoids are fat-soluble and therefore color the fat eyes rather than the soup itself (e.g. paprika), only saffron contains a water-soluble carotenoid. Phenylpropanes: This very small class of compounds occurs more often in primitive families and is particularly common in the magnolia-like order (Magnoliidae) (e.g. cinnamic acid in cinnamon), but can be found scattered throughout the plant kingdom. Other ingredients from this group are the poisonous safrole (sassafras, nutmeg) as well as eugenol (cloves) and vanillin in the vanilla. The widespread coumarin (woodruff, tonka beans) should also be mentioned here. Despite its pleasant smell, it is not harmless, as it is liver-damaging, at least in high doses, and carcinogenic effects are suspected. Synthetic coumarins serve partly as medical anticoagulants (blood clotting inhibitors), partly as rat poisons (lead to internal bleeding for the same reason). Furanocoumarins (psoralens) are dangerous because of their photosensitizing effect and occur in the umbellate family and in the peel of some citrus fruits (see orange). Like terpenes, phenylpropanes are often volatile and then find their way into essential oils. Diarylheptanoids: This group of non-volatile compounds occurs only in the rhizome spices of the ginger family (Zingiberaceae), such as citrus and fingerwort; they are responsible for the pungent taste of these spices and also the yellow color of turmeric. Chemically, diarylheptanoids are variously substituted and modified 1,7-diaryl-heptan-3ones; they are derived from the phenylpropane metabolism. Some ginger plants contain more simply built 1-aryl alkanones (ginger and grains of paradise). Alkaloids: This very important class of compounds that contains a large number of important poisons and

Remedies (atropine in the deadly nightshade, morphine in the opium poppy, cocaine in the South American coca bush and the historical coniin in the hemlock) is rarely found in aromatic plants because of the mostly high toxicity and the usually very bitter taste and is then probably only slightly responsible for the taste (e.g. Nigellin in Nigella or Boldin in the Boldo leaves). But the hot-tasting ingredients of chile and black pepper are very closely related to alkaloids. Alkaloids are almost never volatile; therefore they not only contribute nothing to the smell of a spice, but are also not contained in the essential oils obtained by distillation. Glycosides: These are a very diverse group of substances that chemically consist of two parts: a sugar (mostly dextrose = glucose) and another part, which is commonly referred to as aglycon. Depending on the aglycon, different types of glycosides are distinguished; It is important to know that the so-called glycosidic bond that holds the two parts together can often be broken very easily, releasing the aglycone. Glycosides are non-volatile and therefore odorless, but the aglycon can be volatile and then often ends up in the essential oil. Many plants store dangerous substances that could harm them themselves as glycosides so that they can be released quickly with suitable enzymes if necessary. The best-known example of this is the hydrogen cyanide glycosides in the kernels of apricots, cherries or bitter almonds, from which the highly toxic hydrogen cyanide is easily formed. Another example is the mustard oil glycosides, which are found in many cruciferous vegetables (Brassicaceae) and which cause their typical pungent taste: The aglycon here is a strongly acrid and tear-irritating isothiocyanate that is only stable for a few minutes in the free state. Examples of this are black and white mustard and horseradish. Coumarin (e.g. in woodruff or tonka beans) and vanillin (in vanilla pods) are examples of substances that are stored in the plant as glycosides and are only released when the plant wilts. In order to convert the tasteless glycoside as completely as possible into the fragrances, vanilla pods and tonka beans are subjected to various special treatments after harvesting. Tannins: The non-volatile tannins, also known as tannins, are not chemically uniform and occur in almost all plant families. What they all have in common is a tart, astringent (astringent) taste that is generally not particularly appreciated in spices. A high proportion of tannins is therefore considered a quality defect (see Chinese cinnamon), but even tannins have their culinary merits in small quantities (e.g. in rosemary or sumac). Fruit acids: This name covers some chemically related di- and tricarboxylic acids, of which citric acid is the most important, ahead of tartaric acid and malic acid. All of these acids have a similar, purely sour taste without

Own aroma; the typical taste by which we distinguish lemons, oranges, pomegranates, mangos and others from one another comes exclusively from volatile accompanying substances. Carbohydrates: All green plants can produce glucose through photosynthesis from water, air and light; this glucose can in turn be burned to generate energy. Plants make all other types of sugar from glucose. Sweet fruits are used to attract animal species that spread the fruit and, in addition to glucose, often also contain the related fruit sugar (fructose). There are serious reasons not to build up large amounts of glucose in the plant; on the other hand, it is necessary to store the energy content of glucose, e.g. if a plant wants to sprout quickly next spring. A suitable storage form of glucose is starch, which is therefore found in particularly large quantities in overwintering parts of plants (often underground: roots or rhizomes, for example in potatoes or ginger), but of course also in seeds (grain). Lipids: Lipids are commonly known as fats and oils; there is no difference between these two terms other than the melting point. Lipids are a very efficient form of storing energy and occur primarily in seeds in the plant kingdom. Vegetable oils consist almost exclusively of triglycerides, i.e. esters of the alcohol glycerine with three molecules of fatty acids.Fatty acids are long-chain carboxylic acids, the chain length of which varies between 12 (lauric acid) and 22 (behenic acid); longer or shorter chains rarely occur in relevant quantities. Plants cannot make fatty acids with an odd number of carbon atoms. Examples of unsaturated fatty acids are oleic, linoleic and linolenic acids with one, two or three C = C double bonds. Linolenic acid is essential to humans and in recent years large intakes of linolenic acid have been thought to be a useful tool (and often a miracle cure) for preventing diseases resulting from impaired lipid metabolism. However, recent work suggests that the role of monounsaturated oleic acid has been underestimated. The importance of oils in the kitchen lies in the fact that they are an excellent cooking medium for preparation at high temperatures, with brown, crispy and tasty surfaces being achieved, in addition to their inherent taste. However, they have another advantage: Almost all plant ingredients are more fat-soluble (lipophilic) than water-soluble (hydrophilic). This explains the taste-enhancing effect of small amounts of fat in almost all dishes, as the flavoring substances are better extracted from the spices and are then better distributed in the food. Briefly frying the spices in fat (as practiced in India) is particularly effective, as the high temperature has an additional supportive effect. For details about the extraction of vegetable oils and different qualities, see sesame. Other oil plants discussed on these pages are olive, black mustard,

Poppy seeds, coconut and safflower.

About Etymologies I have tried to give etymological explanations of the names of spices whenever I found any. Various sources often make surprisingly contradicting statements here, and in many cases the name of a spice cannot be explained at all. Very often Greek or Latin names spread across Europe through the pharmacists of the Middle Ages, but that only makes it harder for us to find out the origin of the ancient name. Especially in the case of plants native to the Mediterranean region, we very often find that the name of a spice can only be traced back to Greek; borrowing from a Semitic language (e.g. Phoenician) is often assumed, but in many cases there is no connection whatsoever between the plant name and any known language. This does not mean, of course, that the Greeks formed the plant name arbitrarily, but only says that we no longer know the language from which they took it. The Greeks themselves are immigrants who only came to Greece in the second millennium BC and gradually displaced the indigenous population; it makes sense that they took the names of plants that they only got to know in their new homeland from the language of the local population. Unfortunately, we do not know a thing about this language. Plant names assumed to be of pre-Greek origin include crocus, olive, marjoram, mint, rose and parsley. Another example is lotus. An additional complication arises from the phenomenon of folk etymological reinterpretation: a name that is unclear to the speaker is based on a coincidentally similar word. There are numerous examples from all languages: Our word orange, for example, was borrowed from the Italian arancio, but the initial vowel darkened under the influence of French or “gold”, which is not at all linguistically related but is an obvious association for a golden yellow fruit . But not only foreign words and borrowings like to come under the influence of other words, also old German expressions are often reinterpreted: So mugwort is derived neither from nor from Fuß, but goes back to an Old High German verb bivouz “to sto”, from which, however, today no more derivations exist. The interplay of borrowing and reinterpretation can be repeated several times in different languages, often with bizarre results. Why is Kren called horseradish in English? The answer is that the North German horseradish, in turn a reinterpretation from Mehr-radich, was misinterpreted in English as mare radish "mare radish"; Since mare "mare" is quite antiquated, horseradish was eventually adopted as horseradish in English (loan translation). With all that has been said, it is not surprising that etymologies are an uncertain thing. In many cases several plausible theories are offered, in other cases only a single one that is quite unbelievable. Nevertheless, etymologies often provide an astonishing insight into relationships between peoples at an early age - for example, when we learn that the name mustard is of Egyptian origin and thus bears witness to relationships between cultures that are already very distant today.

About recipes Perhaps I will also provide this site with a collection of recipes one day; but that's not planned for the time being. There are several reasons for this: 1. First of all, there are more recipe sites on the Internet than even the most avid chef can try in a lifetime (a small selection can be found at my web pointers). To be honest, I see no reason to increase this oversupply, especially since with the best will in the world I cannot see what would be so new and unique about my recipes that I could be up to this competition. 2. I assume that anyone who is seriously interested in cooking is already piling up cookbooks in their preferred culinary directions at home. What should I add to that? 3. More decisive than the first two points, however, is that I don't find recipes to be that important at all. Recipes are a series of work steps that you have to master technically on the one hand, and on the other hand have to understand their effect on the finished dish. The main thing for me is to give my readers the knowledge of a few crucial points: What kind of spice goes with it? How do I use it? What other ingredients and spices does it go well with? When do I add it to the food? Which cooking technique (cooking, frying, deep-frying, baking ...) is best? Much of the rest is improvisational, taste, and daring (not necessarily in that order). Factual knowledge is especially important if you want to cook authentically. It is precisely then that you need to independently select the right fat, the right vegetables and the right spices - you will then be able to recreate the holiday flavor even without a recipe. For this reason, I have placed more emphasis on contexts in my articles than on individual recipes. It should also be clear that my sporadic information about the preparation of individual dishes cannot and should not replace recipes - one can and should say a lot more about Italian pesto than that it consists of crushed pine nuts, olive oil, garlic, Parmesan and basil. With such information, my aim is to give the reader a rough impression of a certain cooking tradition and perhaps arouse interest in it, but not to create individual unrelated recipes for him. If, instead of mixing the above five components together and being unpleasantly surprised by the result, you buy a book about Italian cuisine and read it carefully, then I have achieved my goal.

About ground spices Finally, I would like to take a stand on an old controversial question: Should you buy spices whole and grind them before use, or should you stick to the spice powder?

The main argument in favor of using industrially ground spices is that the spice mills cool their grist during grinding, so that evaporation of volatile aromatic substances is better avoided than in a converted coffee grinder. In addition, these mills grind dust-fine, which guarantees a higher surface and thus greater productivity. On the other hand, it can be said that it is precisely this higher surface area that leads to great loss of taste during prolonged storage, on the one hand through evaporation of the volatile ingredients and on the other hand through oxidation in the air. The loss of flavor in ground spices is not an academic problem that only the most sensitive tongues will notice, but a dramatically rapid process: I can use whole cloves for years, even if I should increase the amounts slightly after a while; even after five years, more than half of the essential oil is still present. Ground cloves are so tasteless after a year that you can no longer cook them effectively. Of course, you can increase the shelf life of spices by using suitable containers (dry, light and airtight) and good storage conditions (cool), but who wants to store their spice jars screwed tight and melted in plastic for safety in the refrigerator (apart from the fact that they then have problems with condensation)? That is why I think that ground spices are only really useful if they are used very heavily, which necessitates a new purchase every two to three months; but that is hardly the case under household conditions. Most spices can be crushed in small quantities with a mortar (please not made of metal!) And from teaspoon quantities in the coffee grinder (it is better to get a second one, otherwise your breakfast coffee will taste strange). Even if the powder is not as fine as when you bought it, the greater freshness more than makes up for this disadvantage. Some spices are difficult to pulverize. These include the hard root stocks of the ginger family (ginger, galangal and turmeric) and some other woody plant parts, such as cinnamon (even more Chinese cinnamon) and star anise. If you want to use these spices ground at all (which is especially true of the rhizomes), then you should either buy them ground or sometimes laboriously chop larger quantities in advance. A few spices are practically always marketed ground, the most important example being the spice peppers. Particular attention must be paid to rapid consumption here. The same applies to spice mixtures sold in powdered form.

All articles and indices in this spice dictionary are available in both German and English. Each German document only contains links to other German documents, except for one that points to its own English translation. Both versions, the English and the German, are completely identical in terms of content (or at least should be).

Use the following indices to find individual plants in my spice collection: ●

German version of this file

[Plant part | Family | Aroma | Ingredients | Origin | Etymology | Discussion | Bottom]

Adiowan (Trachyspermum ammi [L.] Sprague)

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Synonyms bot

Carum copticum (L.) Benth. & Hook. f., Carum copticum (L.) C.B. Clarke, Carum ajowan, Ptychotis ajowan, Trachyspermum copticum (L.) Link

pharm

Fructus ajowani

Amharic

•• •••• Netch Azmud

Arabic

•••• •••••••, ••••• ••••••• •••••••••• Kamun al-muluki, Ajwan, Taleb el koubs

Assamese

Joni-guti

Bengali

Jowan, Yamani

Chinese ••••• [yan douh jòhng wùih hèung] (Cantonese) Yan douh johng wuih heung Chinese (Mandarin)

••••• [yìn dù zàng huí xi • ng] Yin du zang hui xiang

German

Ajwain, king cumin, Indian caraway

English

Ajwain, Bishop's Weed, Carom, Ajwain

Estonian

Lõhnav karuskömen

Farsi

••••• Nanavva, Zenian

Finnish

Koptilainen kumina

French

Ajwain

Gujrati

Ajamo, Yavan, Jawain

Hindi

Ajvain, Carom, Omum

Italian

Ajwain

Japanese

••••• Azyowan

Kannada

•••••, ••• Ajamoda, Grandma

Lithuanian

Tikrasis šventkmynis

Malayalam

Ayamodakam

Marathi

••• Ova

Dutch Ajwain Oriya

Juani

Polish

Ajwain, Kminek koptyjski

Russian

•••••, ••••• Ajova, Azhgon

Sanskrit

Yavaanika, Ugragandha, Brahmadarbha, Ajmodika, Deepyaka, Yavsaha

Sinhala

Assamodum

Spanish

Ajwain, Ayowam

Tamil

•••• Grandma

Telugu

Omamu, Vayu, Vamu

Czech

Adžvajen

Turkish

M • s • r anason, Emmus, Nanavah †

Hungarian

Ajovan

Part of the plant used The small, caraway-like fruits. These are sometimes incorrectly referred to in English as lovage seed, although the fruits of the lovage are not traded at all as far as I know. Adiowan fruits Plant family Apiaceae (umbelliferae). Smell and taste Similar to thyme, but stronger and coarser. Ingredients The essential oil (2.5 to 5% in the dried fruits) is dominated by thymol (35 to 60%); in addition, p-cymene, limonene and γ-terpinene were identified. In the essential oil from the flowers and leaves of Adiowan from Algeria, however, isothymol (50%) was found as the main component, along with p-cymene, thymol, limonene and γ-terpinene. However, the name isothymol is not well defined and can refer to both 2-isopropyl-4-methylphenol and 3-isopropyl-6-methylphenol (carvacrol). (Journal of Essential Oil Research, 15, 39, 2003)

Almost pure thymol (98%) was found in south Indian adiowan fruits, while a more complex composition of mono- and sesquiterpene compounds (43% cadines, 11% longifolene, 5% thymol, 3% camphor and others) was found for leaf oil. (Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 64, 250, 2002) Origin Eastern Mediterranean, perhaps Egypt. The main growing areas today are in Iran and India, but the spice does not play a role in international trade. One of the plants mentioned in Charlemagne's Capitulare de villis, it is sometimes speculated, could have been Adiowan; I think that is very unlikely, although I was able to convince myself that Adiowan can survive in the Central European climate. See also lovage. Etymology The German names “Adiowan” and “Ajowan” are variations of the English ajwain, in turn only the spelling of the Hindi name ajvan [••••••, •••••] with Latin letters; the latter, in turn, can be traced back to the Sanskrit name yavanaka [••••] or yavani [•••••], which is derived from the adjective yavana [•••] "Greek". The South Indian names, e.g. Tamil omam [••••] are related to it. This is a strong indication that Adiowan is of Eastern Mediterranean origin and only became known in India through the Greek conquests of Central Asia. Some European or West Asian names of the Adiowan make a reference to Egypt: Turkish m • s • r anason "Egyptian anise" or Finnish koptilainen kumina "Coptic caraway". In fact, Adiowan is grown in Egypt today; however, it is not exactly known whether it originally came from there. I can't explain the English name bishop's weed any further. In German, "Bischofskraut" mostly stands for the related plant Ammi visnaga, which is also called "Toothpick herb" or "Cartilage carrot" or is referred to by the Arabic name Khella [•••]; but this plant is not suitable as a spice. Nevertheless, I have already read “Bischofskraut” as a translation for bishop's weed in cookbooks - the translator apparently didn't know what to do next. In English, besides Adiowan and Khella, bishop's weed also often refers to the ground elder, Aegopodium podagraria. The German term Königskümmel, which is occasionally found in old pharmaceutical catalogs, is evidently formed as a loan translation to Arabic kamun al-muluki [•••• •••••••] "royal cumin", with the usual confusion between caraway and Cumin in German literature. I don't know the motivation behind this name. Caution: Terms like “royal caraway” or “royal cumin” are also used for a rare Indian spice, which I prefer to call black cumin on this page.

Selected links The Epicentre: Ajowan Francesco Sirene: Spices & Herbs (Catalog) American Spice Company: Ajowan (Bishop's Weed) Herbie's Spices: Ajwain World Merchants: Ajwain Gewürzkontor Condimento: Ajwain The Spice House: Ajowan Old Gewürzamt: Ajowan INDU-Versand

Adiowan is quite unknown these days and is almost limited to the Central Asian-North Indian area; in India, its use is concentrated in the northwest (Punjub, Gujarat). Furthermore, it enjoys a certain popularity in the Arab world and can be found in the spice mixture berbere from Ethiopia, which has both Arab and Indian features (see long pepper). The strong aroma is enhanced by dry roasting or roasting in fat Adiowan plant in bloom and goes perfectly with potatoes or fish. Legumes (lentils, beans) are the preferred area of ​​application; In India, where they serve as an important source of protein because of the predominantly vegetarian diet, legumes are usually seasoned with a flavored butter, which often contains Adiowan. The effect of this apparently simple preparation goes far beyond the simple application of heat, since most of the aromas of all spices are much more soluble in fat than in water; the aroma is therefore not only enhanced in the heat, but also extracted into the fat, whereupon it can be distributed much better in the food. A typical recipe for lentils looks something like this: First, the dried lentils with turmeric as the only spice are cooked until they are soft. This lentil puree is then seasoned with a preparation of various spices in clarified butter (clarified butter, ghee) called tadka: cumin, dill and adiowan are fried in clarified butter until they brown and develop a strong odor; you add garlic or asante and possibly finely chopped ginger, continue to fry for a short time and pour the tadka over the lentils. See chives for

a Nepalese variant of tadka. In the predominantly vegetarian cuisine of South India, Tadka-like preparations are used not only for dried legumes, but also for fresh green vegetables and cooked rice. The most popular spices for this are black mustard seeds, which you fry in fat until they stop jumping, and curry leaves, which can only be fried very briefly. Besides clarified butter, coconut fat is also common. Adiowan is often used as a medicinal herb in Ayurvedic medicine in India, especially for digestive problems and fever. In western medicine, thymol, the main component of adiowan oil, is used in medicines against colds.

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Table of contents Alphabetical index (according to plant name) Botanical index (according to plant families) Geographical index (according to country of origin) Morphological index (according to plant part) Mixture index Deutsche Version of this text To my homepage

Last modified on Aug 28, 1998 Please send your feedback to Gernot Katzer (treabgxngmre)

[Plant part | Family | Aroma | Ingredients | Origin | Etymology | Discussion | Bottom]

Anise (Pimpinella anisum L.)

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Synonyms pharm

Fructus anisi

Albanian

Anason

Arabic

••• ••••••, •••••, •••• •••, •••••• ••••••• •••••••••, ••• ••••• Habbet hilwa, Habbu al-hulwah, Yansoon, Yansun, Anisun, Kamun halu, Kamoon halou

Armenian

•••••• Anison

Basque

anise

Bengali

Sulpha

Bulgarian

•••••• Anason

Chinese

Pa chio, yan kok

Chinese ••• [daaih wùih h • ung], ••• [yèuhng wùih h • ung] (Cantonese) Daai wuih heong, Yeung wuih heong Chinese (Mandarin)

••• [dà huí xi • ng], ••• [yàng huí xi • ng] Da hui xiang, Huei hsiang, Yang hui xiang

Danish

anise

Danish

Green anise

English

Anise, Aniseed, Sweet cumin

Esperanto

Anizo

Estonian

Harilik aniis

Farsi

••••••, •••••• •••• Anisun, Badiyan romi

Finnish

Anise, anisruoho

French

Anise vert, boucage

Frisian

Anys

Galician

Anise

Greek

Γλυκ • νισο, • νισον

Glikaniso, Glykaniso, Anison Gujrati

Variyali

Hebrew

•••• aniseed

Hindi

Saunf, Patli saunf, Vilayati saunf

Indonesian

Jinten manis

Icelandic

Anise

Italian

Anice, Anice verde

Japanese

••• Anisu

Kannada

••••• ••••• Lakko sompu

Catalan

Anís, Comí

Croatian

Anise

Latvian

At • ss

Lithuanian

Anyžius, Anyžin • ožiažol •

Marathi

•••••• Badishep, Shauf

Dutch Anijs, Wilde pimpernel, Nieszaad, Groene anijs Norwegian

anise

Polish

Any •, Biedrzeniec any •

Portuguese

Anise, anise verde, erva-doce

Provençal

anise

Romanian

Anason

Russian

•••• aniseed

Sanskrit

Shatapushpa

Swedish

anise

Slovenian

Janež, Vrtni janež

Slovak

Aníz, Anýz, Bedrovník anízový

Spanish

Anís, Matalahuga

Tagalog

anise

Tamil

•••••, ••••••, ••••••••••••••• Anisu, Magambu, Natchattirajiragam

Czech

Anýz

Turkish

Anason, Enisen, Enison, Ezertere, Mesir otu, Nanahan, Raziyanei-rumi

Ukrainian

•••• aniseed

Hungarian

Ánizs

Vietnamese Cây h • i Cay hoi Part of the plant used Fruits (mostly referred to as "anise seeds", although this is not botanically correct). Plant family Apiaceae (umbelliferae). Smell and taste aniseed fruits Sweet and strongly aromatic, licorice-like. For an assortment of sweet spices, see liquorice. For other spices with an anise-like aroma, see sweet umbels. Ingredients The aroma of the essential oil (up to 3% in the dried fruits) is determined by the transAnethol (max. 90%). Further aroma components are estragole (iso-anethole, 2%), anisaldehyde (p-methoxybenzaldehyde, less than 1%), anise alcohol, p-methoxyacetophenone and the terpenes pinene, limonene, γ-himachalen (2%). An unusual compound is the phenol ester (4-methoxy-2- (1-propen-yl) -phenyl) -2-methylbutyrate, which is characteristic of anise (5%). Indications about the coniin content of commercial anise due to the addition of the highly poisonous fruits of the hemlock (Conium maculatum) seem to be no longer relevant today; So after enjoying an aniseed biscuit, one need not fear sharing Socrates' fate (on analysis, see Melchior and Kastner). Origin Eastern Mediterranean (Egypt?) Or Western Asia. Turkey is still an important producer today, but better qualities come from Spain. In Far Eastern kitchens (India,

Anise blossoms

Iran, Indonesia) one often makes no distinction between anise and fennel (see below); therefore both plants are given the same name. In the Philippines, the star anise, which is a popular spice there, is only referred to as "anise". Etymology The plant got its classical Latin name anisum through confusion with dill, which was called aneson [• νησον] or aneton [• νητον] in Greek. The names of anise in practically all European and some non-European languages ​​are derived from the Latin anisum, with very little variation being observed: for example, the name anis is in Norwegian, Croatian, Finnish, Russian (written ••••), Ukrainian, among others (written ••••]) and Hebrew (written ••••) valid. In other languages ​​there are variations such as Icelandic anís, Latvian an • ss, Hungarian ánizs, Czech anýz, Polish any •, Estonian aniis, Italian anice, Romanian anason, Arabic yanason [••••••], Urdu anisuan [• ••••••] and Farsi anisun [••••••]. Sanskrit shatapushpa [•••••••], literally means "a hundred flowers" and probably refers to the inflorescence (umbel). This Sanskrit name was also used for other, similar plants, and was borrowed in various meanings in modern languages. For example, thian-sattapusyat [••••••••••••••] is the name for aniseed fruits in Thai herbal medicine, but in the South Indian language Telugu is shatapushpamu [•••••••••] for "dill". The Hindi name saunf [••••] actually means fennel, the foreign substitute for which anise is often interpreted and with which it is interchangeable in many recipes. To distinguish aniseed from fennel, the restricted terms patli saunf [•••• ••••] "thin fennel" or vilayati saunf [••••••• ••••] "foreign fennel" are used. Some languages ​​name anise as a "sweet" variant of other related spices, e.g. English sweet cumin, Indonesian jinten manis and Arabic kamun halu [•••• •••] "sweet cumin". Compare also in Arabic habbu al-hulwa [••• ••••••] "sweet grains". The Portuguese erva doce "sweet plant" is used not only for aniseed but also for fennel and occasionally other plants such as sweet leaf (Stevia rebaudiana). Selected links The Epicenter: Anise Medical Spice Exhibit: Anise Nature One Health: Anise Transport Information Service: Aniseed plants of the Capitulare de Villis: Anise (biozac.de) chemikallexikon.de: Anethol chemikallexikon.de: Anisaldehyd

The use of anise in Western cuisine is largely restricted to bread and cakes; It can also be used to flavor fruit products. However, anise is also often contained in very small amounts in spice mixtures for sausages or stews. Its main use, however, remains schnapps and liqueurs scented with anise, such as the Turkish rak •, the Greek ouzo [Ο • ζο] and the French pernod; see also mugwort on absinthe. In these drinks, the expensive anise is often replaced by the cheaper star anise. In the east, anise is very little known, as flowering aniseed plants fennel and star anise are more easily available www.botanikus.de. Anise can be a good substitute for fennel in North Indian dishes, but it is a poor substitute for star anise in Chinese cuisine. Anise makes an occasional appearance in Mexican recipes, but I'm not sure if Mexican chefs really use it when they have their own anise-scented spices available (winter tarragon and Mexican pepper leaf). Anise makes a suitable substitute for both, but tarragon is even better. Many plants have an aroma comparable to that of anise. Within the umbelliferous family (Apiaceae), both fennel and umbel imitate the aniseed aroma almost perfectly; to a lesser extent, chervil and dille are also reminiscent of anise, although their aroma is less pure than that of the previously mentioned species. See sweet umbel for another anise-scented plant.

[Plant part | Family | Aroma | Ingredients | Origin | Etymology | Discussion | Bottom]

Annatto (Bixa orellana L.) synonyms

Bengali

Latka

Bulgarian

•••••• Achiote

Chinese ••• [y • n j • syuh] (Cantonese) Yin ju syuh Chinese (Mandarin)

••• [y • n zh • shù] Yan zhi shu

German

Orlean shrub

English

Achiote, Annatto, Lipstick tree

Estonian

Värvibiksa

Finnish

Annaatto

French

Rocou, Roucou, Achiote, Rocouyer

Indonesian

Kesumba

Italian

Annatto, Anotto

Japanese

•••• Beninoki

Laotian

Sa ti, dok kham

Malaysian

Jarak belanda

Dutch Anatto, Rocou, Annotto, Achiote, Orleaan Polish

Arnota

Portuguese

Anato, Açafroado-Brasil, Urucú, Urucum

Russian

••••••, •••••, •••••••• ••••••

Sterile annato plant

frames / noframes

Annato, Biksa, Pomadnoe derevo Spanish

Achiote, Achote, Annato

Tagalog

Achuete, Achwete, Atsuete

Tamil

•••••••, ••••••••• Sappira, Kongaram

Thai

Came tai

Turkish

Arnatto

Czech

Annata

Hungarian

Bjoul, Ruku, Orleánfa

Vietnamese H • t • i • u mau Hot dieu mau Part of the plant used The dark red seeds (approx. 3 mm in diameter). A good illustration of both the seeds and the fruit can be found at Ortiz. Plant family Bixaceae (a family of only two members in South America). Annatto Seed Smell and Taste Annatto has a faint, floral odor. Ingredients A tricyclic sesquiterpene hydrocarbon, ishwaran, is responsible for the slightly flower-like odor. The seeds owe their red color to some apocarotenoids in the seed epidermis, of which Bixin (9'Z6,6'-Diapocaroten-6,6'-diet) is the most important. A few more carotenoids and apocarotenoids have been identified. The total content of colorants varies between 2 and 7%. (Phytochemistry, 41, 1201, 1996)

Origin South America; Brazil is the main producer and exporter. Today annatto is also grown in the Philippines, where it was introduced by the Spanish. Etymology The species name orellana is reminiscent of Francisco de Orellana, a Spanish conqueror of the 16th century. Orellana, at the side of Francisco Pizarro, had subjugated the Inca and was involved in the failed expedition of Gonzalo Pizarro in 1541, in which 2,000 Spaniards, lured by false rumors about gold and cinnamon trees, penetrated the Peruvian-Brazilian jungle and largely perished. Orellana left the expedition in good time and drove eastwards, whereby the (rather accidental) discovery of the Amazon earned him an undeserved scientific fame. Annatto shrub with fruit capsules The German name Orlean shrub was created by confusing the Spanish name with the French city of Orleans. The other names of the spice come from different languages ​​of South and Central America: urucul from the Tupi-Guarani in Amazonia (including rocou in French), annatto from the Caribbean and achiote from the Náhuatl in México. The scientific generic name Bixa originated from another Caribbean name for the plant, bija or biché. The English lipstick tree “lipstick tree” refers to the use of the vegetable dye for cosmetic purposes. Selected Links The Epicenter: Annatto Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk: Annatto Recipe: Vietnamese Roasted Chicken (tcbs.com) Rain Tree: Annatto

Annatto seeds originate from South America, and today they are mainly used as a spice and coloring agent in Central America and northern South America. In the Caribbean, the seeds are fried in animal or vegetable fat and the fat is then used (after the seeds have been removed) to prepare meat or vegetables; this results in a golden yellow to golden brown color. In México cooks often use a paste (achiote) of annatto seeds with preservatives (acetic acid), which dissolves in hot oil without leaving any residue; it is easy to use and can also be added to marinades and sauces to improve the color. Annatto is used in a similar way in South America, e.g. Perú and Bolivia. According to some sources, the original Aztec drinking chocolate (see also vanilla) was also colored with annatto; Due to its high fat content, this seems entirely plausible, especially since the annatto bush with its flowers and fruits is red in color and is reminiscent of blood and therefore had a special cultic significance among the Aztecs. Until the seventeenth century, annatto was also widely used as a chocolate additive in Europe; Today this spice only plays a certain role in coloring butter and cheese (see also Schabziegerklee). Annatto also came to Southeast Asia through Spanish influence.In the Philippines, the seeds are ground to a powder and this is added to soups or stews, or meat is marinated in annatto-colored marinades. The hue achieved is duller than that achieved in the Caribbean style with annatto oil. Except in the Philippines, annatto is rarely used in the kitchens of Southeast Asia. The Vietnamese often add a little annatto oil to the batter for meat or vegetables in order to achieve a more appetizing color or deepen the color of their curries made with coconut milk (ca ri [cà ri], see rice field plant) with a little annatto oil. Finally, there is a Vietnamese version of Peking duck (ga quay mat ong, made with both chicken and duck) in which the bird is coated with annatto oil to turn the meat surface reddish brown; Chinese chefs achieve a similar shade by treating the skin with a malt solution that caramelizes as it bakes. In China, annatto is only occasionally found in

Marinades for grilled or roasted meat to give it a bright red crust. Some books claim that Annatto also transfers its own flavor to the food, but I cannot agree with that. The seeds really give off a very faint, perfume-like scent, but I've never noticed it in the finished food. Yellowish or orange shades can also be achieved with some other plants. The dye in saffron is related to the chemical coloring principle of annatto, and the color tones can also be pretty much the same; however, with its indescribable smell, saffron is much more than just a coloring agent. Safflower, on the other hand, has no taste and can therefore be used for coloring if no aroma is desired; but its coloring power is poor. Finally there is turmeric (also called turmeric), the annatto, ripe fruit, has a strong, earthy taste and gives it a bright yellow color. Incidentally, saffron and turmeric can also be used to dye textiles; however, both are not lightfast (and saffron is also much too expensive, although this use is even mentioned in the Bible; see pomegranate). Leaves can also be used for dyeing, although their green color is usually quite weak (pandanus leaves are an example). In nature, leaf colors other than green rarely occur; However, cultivars with red or otherwise colored leaves are known of some plants (e.g. basil, chameleon plant, sage). A purple-leaved type of perilla is used in Japan to color pickled ginger. The green leaf pigment chlorophyll also gives some vegetable oils a typical color, such as olive oil or pumpkin seed oil. While the former is usually not strong enough in color, the latter can be used to flavor a large number of mostly cold dishes at the same time and color them from dark green to olive green. Other colors cannot be achieved with spices; however, some vegetables can fill this gap. Spinach is traditionally used for green (which colors better than most other leaves), aubergines for purple, tomatoes for red and carrots for an orange. Italian cooks sometimes use the “ink” of the squid to color noodles (pasta) or rice dishes (risotto) unusually dark, almost black. A very exotic dye is that

dried cochineal louse, which gives off a very attractive, pink-red color (however much the use of an insect in the kitchen may be a deterrent); beetroot is a good substitute. The hardest part is to achieve the blue by natural means; Resourceful cooks have tried different flowers (such as borage), but apart from their seasonal availability, none of them have a satisfactory coloring power. The best results are obtained with the Southeast Asian butterfly vetch (Clitoria ternatea, Fabaceae), the blue flowers of which were mainly used in Thailand to color desserts before synthetic food colors became popular.

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Table of contents Alphabetical index (according to plant name) Botanical index (according to plant families) Geographical index (according to country of origin) Morphological index (according to plant part) Mixture index Deutsche Version of this text To my homepage

Last modified on 26 Oct 2002 Please send your feedback to Gernot Katzer (treabgxngmre)

[Plant part | Family | Aroma | Ingredients | Origin | Etymology | Discussion | Bottom]

Asant (Ferula assa-foetida L.)

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Synonyms bot

Ferula asafoetida

Arabic

••••• Haltit

Bengali

Hung

Burmese

Sheingho

Chinese •• [a ngaih] (Cantonese) A ngaih Chinese (Mandarin)

•• [a wèi] A white

Danish

Dyvelsdræk

German

Stinkasant, devil's filth, Asafötida,

English

Asafetida, Stinking gum, Devil's dung, Asafoetida

Estonian

Asaföotida

Farsi

••••••, •••••• Anghuzeh, Rechina fena?

Finnish

Pirunpihka, Hajupihka, Pirunpaska

French

Asa-fœtida, Asafétida, Férule persique, Merde du diable

Greek

Αζα Aza

Gujrati

Hung

Hindi

Hung

Blooming Asantee www.ibiblio.org/herbmed

© Henriette Kress

Icelandic

Djöflatað, Asafoetida

Italian

Assafétida

Japanese

••, •••••••, •• Agi, Asahueteida, Hin

Kannada

•••• Ingu

Croatian

Asafetida

Laotian

Ma ha hung

Latvian

Dr • veldri • is, Velna s • ds

Lithuanian

Azafetida, Kvapioji ferula

Malayalam

Kaayam, Kayam

Marathi

•••• Hing

Dutch Asafoetida, Godenvoedsel, Duivelsdrek Norwegian

Dyvels drekk

Oriya

Hengu

Pashto

Kama i anguza

Polish

Asafetyda, Zapaliczka cuchn • approx

Russian

••••••••• Asafetida

Sanskrit

Hingu, Raamathan

Swedish

Dyvelsträck

Sinhala

Perunkayan

Spanish

Asafétida

Swahili

Mvuje

Tamil

••••••••••• Perungayam

Telugu

Inguva

Tibetan

Shing-kun

Flowers of asanth

Turkish

• eytantersi, • etan bökösu

Czech

• ertovo lejno, Asa smrdutá, Lo • idlo

Hungarian

Ördöggyökér

Urdu

Anjadana

Part of the plant used The milky sap (obtained by scratching the root), which after drying is a brown, resinous mass. Plant family Apiaceae (umbelliferae).

Asanth resin

Smell and taste Very strong smell, rather repulsive and reminiscent of (not entirely fresh) garlic. Ingredients Dried asante mainly consists of a resin (25 to 60% of the total mass; 60% of which is ester of ferulic acid) and carbohydrates with a rather complex composition (25 to 30%). The essential oil (10%) contains a variety of sulfur compounds, mainly (R) -2-butyl-1-propenyl disulfide (50%), 1- (1-methylthiopropyl) -1-propenyl disulfide and 2-butyl-3methylthioallyl- disulfide. Polysulfides (di2-butyl trisulfide, 2-butyl methyl trisulfide and even di-2butyl tetrasulfide) were also found. (Phytochemistry, 23, 899, 1984) The essential oil also contains terpene components (αPinen, Phellandren) and Hendecansulfonyl-acetic acid. Ethers of sesquiterpenes with coumarins (farnesiferols) have also been identified.

inflorescence

Origin Several species of the genus Ferula grow wild from the eastern Mediterranean area to Central Asia. As a supplier of the spice, F. assa-foetida is the most important, even if one sometimes reads of other species (F. persica, F. alliacea, F. foetida and F. narthex), which are considered inferior. All of these species come from Central Asia (Iran to Afghanistan) and, to my knowledge, are not grown anywhere else.

Galbanum is the dried milky sap of a related plant (Ferula galbaniflua), which is also native to Central Asia (Iran). It has an aromatic smell and is mainly used for smoked products. See rock cherry for an explanation of the name galbanum. Young asante plant Etymology The Latin name ferula means "bearer"; a related plant (F. vulgaris), native to the Mediterranean region, is mentioned in Greek mythology as the plant in whose hollow stem Prometheus carried the stolen solar fire to earth. It has been suggested that Stone Age nomadic peoples may in fact have transported fire in the hollow stems between their camps. The same Latin word is also used for the generic name of the mango. Flowering asante plant The botanical species name assa-foetida consists of two parts from different languages: Assa is the Latinized form of the Persian aza "resin", and the Latin foetidus means "ugly, stinking". Swedish dyvelsträck, French merde du diable, Turkish • eytan tersi “Dung of the devil” and also the German Teufelsdreck all testify to the rather low level of enthusiasm that the aroma of this idiosyncratic spice encounters outside of the areas of its traditional use. Latvian dr • veldri • is as an outdated pharmaceutical term is probably a North Germanic borrowing and a model for the loan translation velna s • ds “Teufelsmist”. Selected links

The Epicenter: Asafoetida Nature One Health: Galbanum INDU-Versand Nature One Health: Asafetida Una sostanza favolosa: Assa Fetida (gianniferretti.it) From Silphium to Asafoetida: A Tale of Two Ancient Spices Recipe: Lentil Dhal [•••] (recipesource .com) Recipe: Sundal Varieties (Indian Legume Recipes) (www.chennaionline.com)

The terrible smell of the fresh asant indeed justifies the name “devil's dirt”; When someone first told me about the use of this unspeakable substance (which I probably knew before) in Indian cuisine, I suspected that I was being kidnapped. Nevertheless, it is true, and today asanth is one of my favorite asanth flowers spices.

www.ibiblio.org/herbmed

© Henriette Kress

Asant was already in use in Europe more than two millennia ago: legend has it that it was seen by the soldiers of Alexander the Great on their march through Central Asia. After the conquests of Alexander trade relations developed which brought eastern goods to the Mediterranean area; Asant, like the black pepper, was able to establish itself quickly on the new market. It was widely used in Greek and Roman cuisine, often as a substitute for the expensive North African spice Silphion; after the latter became extinct, Asant experienced another surge in popularity. It was widely used until the early Middle Ages (e.g. for grilled mutton in France), but later it somehow fell out of favor: after the 16th century it was no longer mentioned in European cookbooks. In Central Asia and India, however, asant has retained its place as an important spice and remedy. He gets a lot in the

Persian cuisine is used, but the real popularity center is in India. In some parts of the country (especially Bengal; see also Nigella about the peculiarities of Bengali cuisine) the Brahmins eat neither onions nor garlic, but mostly use Asant instead. In other North Indian cuisines as well, asant is rarely combined with onions or garlic, even if the latter are not affected by any food taboo. Asant is even more popular in the Dravidian south of India. The Tamil (South Indian) mixture sambaar podi (see cumin) often contains it. Despite various exceptions, asante is considered a vegetable spice in India; Now, however, vegetarianism is more widespread in the south than in the north, and perhaps that explains why Asant is more needed in south India than in the north, which is closer to its country of origin. Asant is a fine example of the touch of culinary and medicinal uses of one

Sterile asante plant (spring shoots)

Asanth buds just before flowering

Spice. In southern India in particular, it is almost canonical for seasoning legumes (beans, peas, lentils), which in India are often collectively referred to by the Hindi name dal [•••]. They are one of the cornerstones of the Indian diet as they are not only a cheap source of protein, but also one that is open to vegetarians; in addition, they can be kept well dry. But since all legumes also contain indigestible oligosaccharides, flowering asante plants need spices with pronounced digestive and gas inducing (carminative) effects. Asante, garlic and cumin are widely used in India to make dal tastier and easier to digest. In other countries, legumes are seasoned with other spices with similar properties, e.g. savory in Western Europe and Jesuit tea in México. The use of the powder and the pure resin are slightly different from each other. The resin is very tasty and must therefore be used with care; In addition, it must be fried briefly in hot oil (see also Adiowan), for two reasons: firstly, it dissolves in hot fat and is therefore better distributed in the food, and secondly, the high temperature changes the taste and makes it first pleasant. The powder, on the other hand, is less intense and can also be used without frying, but you get a sweeter taste after frying. The powder also loses its taste after a few years, while the resin seems to be absolutely immortal. If you like to experiment and are looking for an interesting alternative to garlic and onion, the Asant is recommended. For European dishes, however, asant must be dosed very carefully; Even the ancient Romans kept pine nuts in their asante pots and then seasoned the dishes by adding a few kernels. Another possibility is the production of asan oil, which is added drop by drop to the food. When dosed carefully, Asant gives mushroom and vegetable dishes, as well as fried or grilled meat, a special touch.

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Table of contents Alphabetical index (by plant name)

[Plant part | Family | Aroma | Ingredients | Origin | Etymology | Discussion | Bottom]

Wild garlic (Allium ursinum L.)

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Synonyms pharm

Herba Alii ursini

Albanian

Qepë e arushës

Basque

Sube-required

Bulgarian

•••••••, ••• •••• Levurda, Luk mechi

Danish

Ramsløg

German

Wild garlic, forest garlic, ramsen

English

Bear's garlic, Ramson, Wild garlic

Esperanto

Sova • a ajlo

Estonian

Karulauk

Finnish

Karhunlaukka

French

Ail des ours, Ail sauvage

Gaelic

Creamh

Greek

• γριο σκ • ρδο Agrio skordo

Italian

Erba orsina, Aglio orsino

Japanese

••••• Ramusomuzu

Croatian

Crijemuž, Medvje • i luk, Srijemuž

Latvian

Lakši, Laksis, Mežloks

Lithuanian

Meškinis • esnakas

Dutch Daslook, Beerlook, Berelook, Borslook, Hondsknoflook, Wilde Knoflook, Woutknooploock Norwegian

Ramsløk, Ramslauk

Polish

Czosnek nied • wiedzi

Romanian

Leurd •

Russian

••••• ••••••, ••• ••••••••, •••••• ••••••••; ••••••• Dikij chesnok, Luk medvezhi, Chesnok medvezhi; Cheremsha (possibly A. ursinum or A. victorialis)

Swedish

Ramslök

Slovenian

• emaž, Divji • esen, Medvedji • esen

Slovak

Cesnak medvedí

Spanish

Ajo silvestre, ajo de oso

Czech

Medv • dí • esnek

Turkish

Yabanî sar • msak, Ay • sar • msa ••

Ukrainian

•••••• ••••••• Tsybulya vedmezha

Hungarian

Medvehagyma

Part of the plant used Young leaves, preferably fresh. The onion is much smaller than that of garlic and is rarely used. Plant family Alliaceae (leek family). Smell and taste Similar to garlic, but weaker and somewhat reminiscent of chives.

Fresh wild garlic leaf

Ingredients Similar to garlic, a large number of different sulfur compounds can also be found in the essential oil of wild garlic: divinyl sulfide, dimethyl thiosulfonate, methylcycteine ​​sulfoxide and its breakdown products methylallylthiosulfonate and methanethiol. Origin Western and Central Europe. In the USA, the related wild leek, Allium tricoccum, (English ramp), a wild plant with a more onion-like aroma, is used for similar ones

Purposes. Etymology In many European languages, but not in the North Germanic, this herb is called "bear garlic", "bear onion" or "bear garlic". The following table gives an overview: English

Bear's garlic blossom bear's garlic Bear's garlic bear

dutch beerlook

Bear garlic bear

Latin

Allium ursinum

Bear garlic ursus

Italian

erba orsina

Bear herb

orso

French

ail des ours

Bear's Garlic

ours

Spanish

ajo de oso

Bear's Garlic

oso

Albanian

qepë e arushë onion of the bears

Polish

czosnek nied • wiedzi

Bear Garlic Nied • wied •

Czech

medv • dí • esnek

Bear garlic m • dved

Slovak

cesnak medvedi

Bear garlic medved

Russian

chesnok medvezhij [•••••• ••••••••]

Bear garlic medved [•••••••]

Russian

luk medvezhij bear onion [••• ••••••••]

medved [•••••••]

Ukrainian

tsybulya bear onion vedmezha [•••••• •••••••]

vedmid [•••••••]

Bulgarian

luk mechi [••• Bear onion ••••]

mechok [•••••]

arush

Croatian

medvje • i luk

Bear onion

medvjed

slovenian

medvedji • esen

Bear garlic medved

Hungarian

medvehagyma bear onion

medve

Finnish

karhunlaukka bear onion

karhu

Estonian

karulauk

Bear onion

karu

Latvian

lakši, laksis

?

l • cis

Lithuanian

meškinis • esnakas

Bear garlic meška

The Romanian leurd • also belongs in this series: It consists of an element (a) le “garlic” (from Latin allium) and a second element -urda, related to modern Romanian urs “bear”. Bulgarian levurda [•••••••] is borrowed from Romanian. It is not clear to me where the close relationship to the bear comes from; allegedly there is a popular belief that bears eat wild garlic after their hibernation in spring. The word bear is common to the Germanic languages ​​(Old English bera, Old Norse bj • rn); In the current languages ​​we have e.g. English bear, Dutch beer or Swedish björn. It is a cover word (taboo word), probably with the meaning “the brown”, which is derived from the Indo-European root BHER- “brown”; According to another theory, it connects to Greek ther wild garlic (withering leaves and fruit stands) [θ • ρ] "animal" and Latin ferus "wild" and is derived from Indo-European GHWER- "animal". The Germanic peoples feared that by pronouncing the “correct” name of the bear they would call up the dangerous animal. There is also a taboo behind the Russian name of the bear, medved [•••••••], and its Slavic relatives: the name literally means “honey eater”. The Russian med [•••] "honey" has close relatives in almost all Indo-European languages. Most Germanic languages ​​have almost identical words for "honey wine", e.g. German Met, Icelandic mjöðr and English mead; the old English form was meodu or medu. All of these names go back to a common Germanic root MEDUZ. Related words in non-Germanic languages ​​are Latvian medus "honey", Sanskrit madhu [•••] "sweet" and Greek methy [•• θυ] "(honey) wine", which is also derived from the wine-colored semi-precious stone amethyst

gave his name. It is based on an Indo-European root MEDHU "sweet, honey" (see also licorice). Met played a prominent role in Germanic culture. It also appears in the Edda and is mentioned e.g. in the first chapter of the Liederedda, völuspá, as the drink of the all-wise giant Mimir: dreccr miöð Mímir morgin hverian "Mimir drinks mead every morning". Met was the characteristic drink of the Germanic peoples of historical times; Nordgeman princes (Vikings) typically resided in a large wooden mead hall. Compare the multiple mentions of mead in the old English Beowulf poem and the name meduseld "Met-Saal" for Beowulf's own hall. The original Indo-European word for the bear is RKSOS, probably with the meaning “destroyer”, and appears in both the Latin ursus and the Greek arktos [• ρκτος] “bear”; the latter word also referred to the constellation of the Great Bear (also called the Big Dipper) and thus the north par excellence. The English ramson “wild garlic” goes back to the old English hramsan, but cannot be traced back any further; the word can also be found in some other Germanic (such as Swedish ramslök or the regional German Ramsen) and Slavic (Russian cheremsha [•••••••]) languages, but has very few languages ​​in the other Indo-European wild garlic before it bloomed possible relatives: Greek krommyon [κρ ••• υον] "onion" and perhaps also Valais craf "garlic". The origins of this word are obscure. In many languages, wild garlic is called wild garlic: French ail sauvage, Greek agrio skordo [• γριο σκ • ρδο], Russian dikij chesnok [••••• ••••••] or Turkish yabanî sar • msak. Another, less common, name is “forest garlic”: Dutch woutknooploock or Spanish ajo silvestre. Strangely enough, the Bulgarian name div chesun [••• •••••] "wild garlic" does not refer to wild garlic but chives. See also garlic. Selected links Plants for a Future: Plant Portrait of Allium ursinum, Wild Garlic (www.scs.leeds.ac.uk) Plants of the Capitulare de Villis: Wild garlic (biozac.de) baerlauch.net (Franz & Gisela Schmidt) "Wildman" Steve Brill: Ramps

Voluspa: The Song of the Sybil (www.geocities.com) Völuspá: The prediction of the prophetess (www.nordic-life.org) Wöluspa: Der Seherin Ausspruch (www.maerchen.net)

Wild garlic grows wild in the floodplains and river forests of Western and Central Europe and is often used in local kitchens; however, since it cannot be cultivated, it is only of regional importance. The leaves are collected in spring and used raw for cheese spreads, soups and sauces. When dried they lose most of their aroma and should therefore be used in large quantities, if at all, flowering wild garlic; on the other hand, they can be preserved quite well if you process them in a similar way to pesto (see basil) or simply freeze them. In Germany, and perhaps also in other Central European countries, the popularity and awareness of wild garlic has risen steeply in recent years (see also rocket for other fashion herbs). While the plant was hardly known outside of the wild vegetable scene a few years ago, hardly any award-winning chef misses the opportunity to pamper his guests with his own wild garlic variations during the all-too-short season. Unfortunately, many of these chefs do the wild garlic injustice in the preparation by exposing it to far too high temperatures for their wild garlic creams, wild garlic soups or wild garlic pasta. Bear's garlic shouldn't actually be boiled at all, but rather mixed raw with the hot dishes and then served immediately. Otherwise, the greater part of the characteristic aroma will be lost and will not perfume the food, but the kitchen air instead. The popularity of wild garlic seduces many people to pick the delicacy themselves in the nearest forest. In recent years, however, there has been some poisoning from distantly similar-looking plants, especially the lily of the valley

(Convallaria majus, Convallariaceae / Asparaginales) and the autumn crocus (Colchicum autumnale, Colchicaceae / Liliales). Both plants lack any garlic odor, and the similarities are actually only superficial or non-existent. Lily of the valley contain cardiac glycosides with a digitalis-like effect; However, the concentrations of these active ingredients in the leaves are not to be confused with wild garlic: on the left relatively low, and therefore lily of the valley, on the right autumn crocus, life-threatening poisoning rarely occurs. The situation is different with the autumn crocus: all parts of the plant contain the extraordinarily poisonous alkaloid colchicine in abundance, and the poisoning is alarmingly often fatal. Incidentally, the blossoms of the autumn crocus have also been mistaken for saffron blossoms by inexperienced people.

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Table of contents Alphabetical index (according to plant name) Botanical index (according to plant families) Geographical index (according to country of origin) Morphological index (according to plant part) Mixture index Deutsche Version of this text To my homepage

Last modified on May 15, 2001 Please send your feedback to Gernot Katzer (treabgxngmre)

[Plant part | Family | Aroma | Ingredients | Origin | Etymology | Discussion | Bottom]

Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) Synonyms pharm

Herba Basilici

Afrikaans

basil

Albanian

Bozilok i mermë, Borziloku

Amharic

•••• Besobila

Arabic

•••, ••••• •••••, •••••••• Habaq, Rihaan, Rihan, Raihan

Armenian

••••••••• Shahasbram, Shahaspram

Assamese

Tulasi *

Azeri

Reyxan ••••••

Basque

Albaraka, Brazilla

Bengali

Babui tulsi, Kalotulsi *

Bulgarian

••••••• Bosilek

Burmese

Mood *, pincer pin

Chinese ••• [gáu chàhng taap], •• [lòh lahk], •• [fàn jy • n], ••• [yú h • ung choi] (Cantonese) Gau chahng taap, Loh lahk, Fan jyun, Yu heung choi Chinese (Mandarin)

••• [ji • céng t •], •• [luó lè], •• [x • nz • n], ••• [yú xi • ng cài] Jiu ceng ta, Lou le, Xun sun, Yu xiang cai

Danish

basil

German

Basil, royal herb

English

Basil, sweet basil, basil

Esperanto

Bazilio

Estonian

Vürtsbasiilik, Basiilik

Ewe

Bebusui (O. gratissimum)

Fante

Nunum, Onunum (O. gratissimum)

Farsi

••••• Reihan

Finnish

basilica

French

Basilic, Basilic commun, Herbe royale

Ga-Dangme

Suru, Sulu, Sru, Gbekono (O. gratissimum)

Galician

Albahaca

Georgian

•••••• Rehani

Greek

Βασιλικ • ς Vasilikos

Gujrati

Sabje

Hausa

Dai'doya ta gida (O. gratissimum)

Hebrew

••••••••, ••••

frames / noframes

Bazilikum, Rehan Hindi

Barbarian, Tulsi *

Hmong

Tchow ze Tang

Indonesian

Indring, Kermangi, Selasih; Lampes *, ruku-ruku *; Kemangi hutan, Ruku-ruku rimba, Selaseh mekah (Ocimum gratissimum)

Icelandic

Basilica

Italian

Basilico

Japanese

•••, ••••, •••••• Baziru, Mebouki, Kami-mebouki *

Kannada

••• •••••••, •••••• ••••••••, •••••••••, •••••, •••••••• ••• Kama kasturi, Ramkasturi, Tulasiya sasyajati; Shri-tulasi *, Tulasi *, Vishnu-tulasi *, Tulasigidda *

Kazakh

•••••••••• Nas • baygül

Catalan

Alfàbrega

Khmer

Chi neang vong; Mrea preu *, Chi korhom

Croatian

Bosiljak

Laotian

Phak i tou, Saphaa *

Latvian

Baziliks

Lithuanian

Bazilikas, Kvapusis bazilikas, Siauralapis bazilikas *

Malayalam

Pachcha, Sivatulasi *

Malaysian

Kemangi, Daun selaseh, Selasi jantan; Oku *, Ruku-ruku *, Sulasi *; Selaseh besar, Ruku-ruku hitam (Ocimum gratissimum)

Maltese

• abaq

Marathi

•••••, •••• Sabja, Tulasa *

Dutch Basilicum, Bazielkruid, Baziel, Koningskruid Norwegian

basil

Nzema

Amaloko, Ameloko, Amaliko (O. gratissimum)

Oriya

Dhalatulasi

Pahlawi

Shaahesprahm

Polish

Bazylia wonna

Portuguese

Manjericão

Provençal

Basièli, Balicot, Baricot, Basali, Belicot, Baseli

Quenya

Asea aranion

Romanian

Busuioc

Russian

•••••••, •••••, •••••••• •••••••• Bazilik, Dushki, Dushistye vasilki

Sanskrit

Krishnamula *, Manjari *, Tulasii *

Swedish

Basilica, Basilkaört

Sinhala

Madurutala *, Suwndutala

Slovenian

Bazilika

Slovak

Bazalka pravá

Spanish

Alfábega, Albahaca, Albacar

Swahili

Mrihani

Tagalog

Sulasi, Balanoi; Loco-loco *

Tamil

•••••••••••, ••••••••••••••••, •••••, •••••••••••• Tiviragandam, Tirunirrippachai, Tulasi *, Tiruttizhai *, Tiruttilai *

Telugu

Oddhi *, Rudrajada

Czech

Bazalka

Thai

Bai horapha, Horapa; Bai krapao *, Bai krapau *, Kaprao *; Luk manglak (O. citriodorum); Kaprao-chang (Ocimum gratissimum)

Turkish

Fesle • en, Reyhan, Fesli • en, Peslen

Twi

Nunum, Onunum (O. gratissimum)

Ukrainian

•••••••, •••••••• •••••••••, •••••••• •••••••• Bazylik, Vasylky likarski, Vasylky spravzhni

Hungarian

Bazsalikom, Kerti bazsalikom, Közönséges bazsalikom

Urdu

Janglitulshi *

Vietnamese É d • *, É tía, É tr • ng, Cây húng qu •, Cây rau é, Húng, Húng gi • i, Húng qu •, Lá qu •, Nhu tía *, Rau qu • E do *, E tia, E trang, Cay hung que, Cay rau e, Hung, Hung gioi, Hung que, La que, Nhu tia *, Rau que Note Indian and Southeast Asian names that refer to the so-called holy basil are in the above list marked with an asterisk. It is a cultivar with a particularly intense sweet camphor smell (Ocimum sanctum = O. tenuiflorum), which in India is only rarely used for culinary purposes (as occasionally reported), but has a strong religious significance. It is dedicated to Vishnu [••••••] and symbolizes either his wife Lakshmi [•••••••] or the wives of his avatars. Thai holy basil (krapao [••••••]) Plant part used Leaves; often the whole herb is harvested and used cut; the best time to harvest is just before flowering. Whenever possible, basil leaves should be used fresh, as they lose all of their aroma when dried. However, dried basil is found in the most famous spice mixture from Georgia, khmeli-suneli (see marjoram).Basil seeds are used to a certain extent as a thickening agent in Thailand, but have no flavor of their own.

Leaves of different types of basil: from left to right Mediterranean type (Genovese), African Blue, lemon basil (O. americanum), spice basil, Siam Queen, wild basil (tree basil, O. gratissimum), each on top and bottom. Plant family Lamiaceae (lip flower family). Smell and taste Fresh basil leaves have a strong and characteristic, very pleasant aroma that cannot be compared with any other spice; however, there is a hint of cloves. There is also a vast number of other varieties or species with a different smell; many of them are hybrids. In India, for example, there is the intense, but somewhat stricter smelling sacred flower of the Mexican basil (O. sanctum = O. tenuiflorum), the spice base, the Thai basil with a sweet aniseed smell and (see also sweet umbel) varieties with meaningful names such as cinnamon basil, Camphor basil, anise basil and the "Mexican spice basil"; the latter has a very complex, warm smell with a wonderfully sweet, more cinnamon than anise-like note.

Mexican spice base, flowering plant

There are also a number of lemon-scented varieties, such as the Thai lemon basil (O. citriodorum), which smells like balm, the lime basil or the particularly fragrant O. americanum (lemon basil). See also lemon myrtle for other lemon-scented plants. More recently, perennial African (Ocimum kilimandscharicum) and Asian (Ocimum canum) basil species are increasingly being offered on the European herb market. These plants have a very strong smell, but stronger, tart and less pleasant than the Mediterranean type. Hybrids between these varieties and Mediterranean basil with a novel aroma and exotic appearance are a fairly new development and are enjoying increasing popularity. Strangely enough, the basil grown in the Mediterranean countries is often referred to as sweet basil in English, although this name would be more appropriate for the Thai basil.

African blue basil (O. kilimandscharicum x O. basilicum)

The leaves of all basil varieties tolerate drying only with great loss of aroma; the best preservation is achieved by freezing. Ingredients The essential oil (less than 1%) has a complex and very variable composition. There are several chemical races within the species, and climate, soil, and harvest time also greatly affect both the quality and quantity of the essential oil. The most important aroma components are cineole, linalool, citral, methylchavicol (estragole), eugenol and methylcinnamate, but by no means always in this order.

Furthermore, hardly any basil contains all six of these ingredients. Camphor is also often found in African species. Other monoterpenes (ocimen, geraniol, camphor), sesquiterpenes (bisabolene, caryophyllene) and phenylpropanes (cinnamic acid ester, methyl eugenol) are contained in varying amounts and have a considerable influence on the taste. The large infraspecific variation opens up good prospects for future breeding attempts on the basis of selection. The quality common in Europe and the Middle East (Mediterranean type, also known as French or European basil) predominantly contains linalool and 1,8 cineol, as well as only a little estragole (methylchavicol) or eugenol. This aroma profile applies equally to green and red-leaved (anthocyanin-containing) varieties. Eastern European varieties generally contain a little more eugenol.

"Wild purple" basil (red-leaved, O. canum x O. basilicum)

Inflorescence of the East Indian tree basilica

The "holy basil" of India (O. sanctum = O. tenuiflorum, tulsi [•••••]) owes its sharper smell to the sesquiterpene β-caryophyllene and the phenylpropanoid methyleugenol (both approx. 30%), as well as methylchavicol (10%) ). In the Thai “holy basil” (kra pao) β-caryophyllene was also found, along with the phenylpropanoid eugenol and the sesquiterpene β-element. However, there are only a few races in whose essential oil eugenol dominates and which therefore smell clearly of cloves or allspice (O. gratissimum, see also below). Blossom of holy Thai basil

Holy Thai basil (krapao)

The varieties in which methylchavicol (estragole) dominates have a sweet smell of anise or liquorice (Thai basil, aniseed basil). New Guinea basil, an attractive perennial plant with red leaves and an intense fragrance, also belongs to this group; its botanical affiliation is unclear. Lemon-scented varieties (Ocimum americanum, O. citriodorum) mainly contain citral. In addition to a little 1.8 cineol, the African species O. kilimandscharicum also contains a lot of camphor, which is also found in the hybrids of O. kilimandscharicum with O. basilicum (e.g. African Blue) as a character-determining ingredient. The cinnamon basil owes its smell to methyl cinnamate (cinnamic acid methyl ester), which is also found in cinnamon and cassia. One found in the very pleasantly smelling Mexican spice basil

the main components are methyl cinnamate, β-bisabolene, 1,8-cineole and estragole. The species Ocimum gratissimum, which grows wild in the tropics of Africa and Asia, has a rather complicated chemistry itself. No less than six different chemotypes are known, which are named after their main ingredient: eugenol, thymol, citral, ethyl cinnamate, geraniol and linalool. The type sold in European nurseries mainly contains eugenol, but also thymol, which gives it a pleasantly piquant-spicy taste. This plant is often underestimated in culinary terms.

Thai basil (horapha [••••••]) This combination shows very clearly that basil has an astonishingly diverse secondary metabolism, as it is not uncommon in the mint family. Perilla and mint show a similar genetic variability; Even with thyme, oregano and sage, the composition of the essential oil is subject to climatic, genetic, seasonal or location-related fluctuations. The dark red leaf color of some species and cultivars goes back to anthocyanin-type dyes, which are often found in red-colored plant organs. The anthocyanin content of basil leaves can be up to 200 ppm. See annatto on plant dyes. Origin The genus Ocimum is distributed over Asia, Africa and Central and South America, but seems to have its center of diversity in Africa. Basil was probably first cultivated in India. Today basil is grown in many Asian countries and throughout the Mediterranean region; The main exporters for the European market are France, Italy, Morocco and Egypt. Significant quantities are also produced in California.

The capitate inflorescences are a hallmark of the Siam Queen variety, a cultivar of Thai basil that is also suitable for temperate climates.

Etymology The name basil is derived from the Greek basileus [βασιλε • ς] "king", probably because of the royal smell. Most European languages ​​have related names, often with vowel variations: Icelandic basilíka, Russian vasilki [••••••••], Albanian bozilok, Hungarian bazsalikom, Czech bazalka, Romanian busuioc, Provençal baseli, Basque brasilla and modern Greek vasilikos [ • ς]. Through colonialism, this name also spread into some African languages, e.g. Ewe bebusui and Amharic besobila [••••]. The Greek word basileus [βασιλε • ς] "king" means something like "leader of the people" (bainein [βα • νειν] "to go" and laos [λα • ς] "people"); As improbable as it may sound, the first element is originally related to both German and the equivalent Latin venire (Indo-European verbal root GWEM-); the second element is derived from an Indo-European root LEUDH "upwachsen", which also underlies the German people; other relatives are Old English leod and Lithuanian liaudis "people" as well as Latin liber "free man". Anthocyanin-containing basil variety "Rubin" German Königskraut or Dutch koningskruid are likely, like French herbe royal, loan translations of the Greek name. The name in Quenya, asea aranion, is based on an independent but similar association: aran "king". The Iberian names of basil (Spanish albahaca and Catalan alfàbrega, also Basque albaraka) are, as the prefix suggests, the