Which Beatles songs are most similar to jazz

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In 1963 John Lennon and Paul McCartney attended a blues band concert at the Crawdaddy Club in London. The band was called The Rolling Stones. The two Beatles, taken with the band, brought the young journalist Andrew Loog Oldham together with the group around the singer Mick Jagger, and Oldham, although still a minor, took over the business of the Rolling Stones. Oldham soon tried to contrast the image of the band with that of the Beatles and to turn the musicians into the "bad boys"; the Beatles were the "loved ones". He also managed to get the Stones, as the band was briefly called, a contract with Decca Records, the record label that the Beatles had rejected months earlier on the grounds that "guitar bands are no longer in demand." Now the management of the label didn't want to make another mistake and signed The Rolling Stones.
The first single of the Rolling Stones was, typical of the time, a cover version, "Come On", written by Chuck Berry and published in 1961 by him. The second single, "I Wanna Be Your Man," was a song written by Lennon / McCartney that made it to number 12 on the British charts in the Rolling Stones version. The Beatles had also recorded and published "I Wanna Be Your Man" in 1963, Ringo was the singer; later there were two versions of the song produced for the BBC, which overall was not regarded as an epochal masterpiece by either the Beatles or the Rolling Stones. [1]
John Lennon's and Paul McCartney's work for other musicians and bands began earlier. In January 1962, the management of the band was transferred to Brian Epstein, who then founded a management company under the name NEMS Enterprises. Within a short time he signed other bands from Liverpool, such as Cilla Black, Gerry & The Pacemakers, Billy J. Kramer and the Dakotas and The Fourmost. When the Beatles' records achieved their first success in the charts, “beat music” was so popular that Epstein kept asking Lennon and McCartney to write songs for his other bands. At the first peak of their artistry, it was relatively easy for Lennon and McCartney; often the reference to “… a Lennon / McCartney song” was enough to ensure its success - almost a guarantee. For Cilla Black it was “It's For You”, “Love Of The Loved” and “Step Inside Love”, for Billy J. Kramer and the Dakotas “Bad To Me”, “From A Window”, “I'll Keep You Satisfied ”,“ I'll Be On My Way ”,“ I'm In Love ”, for The Fourmost“ I'm In Love ”and“ Hello Little Girl ”, for Peter and Gordon“ Nobody I Know ”,“ Woman "," World Without Love "and" I Don't Want To See You Again ". Individual songs also went to The Applejacks (“Like Dreamers Do”), Chris Barber (“Catcall), P.J. Proby ("That Means A Lot"), Tommy Quickly ("Tip Of My Tongue") and The Strangers with Mike Shannon ("One And One Is Two"). Almost without exception - the exception would be "Woman" by Peter and Gordon - time passed over these songs and their performers. [2]
Using the pseudonym Paul Ramon, McCartney helped guitarist Steve Miller with the song "My Dark Hour"; McCartney also played drums, bass and guitar here. Over the decades, McCartney has worked with other musicians time and again, not only as a composer and lyricist, but also as an instrumentalist. In the following years Paul McCartney wrote several times for other interpreters, such as Mary Hopkin and Badfinger. As a fan of the Bonzo Dog Doo-Dah Band [3], he had produced the band's only hit, "I'm The Urban Space Man," together with Gus Dudgeon in 1968 under the pseudonym Apollo C. Vermouth. McCartney was also a "member" of the band around Vivian Stanshell and Neil Innes, although that didn't mean much, because the group changed its members weekly. McCartney may have been attracted by old-time jazz, which is somewhat antiquated, but performed with ironic disrespect and provided with humorous lyrics. After all, he had released something similar with “When I'm 64” in 1967, and with “Honey Pie” for the album “The Beatles «(1968) Something similar is in progress. "I'm The Urban Space Man" itself was by Neil Innes and was the A-side of the band's most successful single. For years a version haunted the programs of the television stations and later on video sites on the Internet, showing Innes how he - in tails and top hats - played a small toy organ, operated and full of a so-called low boy [4] Fervently, "I'm The Urban Spaceman" sings, while in the background a young woman tirelessly and enthusiastically - at least at first - is tap dancing to it. Perhaps also noteworthy is the group The Scaffold, a comedy trio which, in addition to Roger McGough and John Gorman, also included Paul McCartney's brother, Peter Michael McCartney - who called himself Mike McGear in this band. Years later, the two brothers recorded the song "Liverpool Lou" with Paul McCartney's band Wings.
One of the factors that triggered the later activities of Paul McCartney in particular was the founding of Apple Corps in January 1968 after Brian Epstein's death in 1967 - the plans for this had matured at the end of 1967. The company owned a record label that on the one hand published the music of the Beatles, but on the other hand was also intended to be open to other musicians and bands.
In the summer of 1968, the Apple label signed a band that had been formed in 1961 under the name The Iveys in Wales and has performed frequently in Liverpool and the surrounding area for several years. The band included the singer and guitarist Peter William Ham (* 1947, † 1975), the bassist Ronald Llewellyn Griffiths (* 1946), the guitarist Dave Jenkins (* 1945) and the drummer Roy Anderson; Occasionally the band also appeared under the names The Black Velvets and The Wild Ones. In the mid-1960s, the musicians found a manager in Bill Collins who gave them performances in and around London. Sometimes they also acted as a backing band for the singer David Garrick, who at that time had a hit in the Netherlands and Germany with the song "Dear Mrs. Applebee". Otherwise, The Iveys played a mixture of their own and cover versions, including songs by the Beatles. In 1967 Jenkins left the band and was replaced by Thomas Evans (* 1947, † 1983). In this line-up, Mal Evans, roadie and studio assistant to the Beatles, got to know the band and insisted on Peter Asher [5], who took care of the artist & repertoire area at Apple, to check whether the band would not suit Apple. Finally, The Iveys - still under this name - received a contract with Apple, the first to be awarded by the label. The first single, "Maybe Tomorrow", produced by Tony Visconti and released at the end of 1968, proved to be a hit in various European countries and in Japan. The first LP produced for Apple in 1969 was only released in Italy, Germany and Japan. When Griffiths complained in an interview that the band was being neglected at Apple, Paul McCartney became aware of the plight in his own company and gave the four musicians one of his songs, "Come And Get It," not without insisting that it be The band, renamed Badfinger on this occasion, had to be recorded exactly as he had demonstrated with his existing demo band. [6] The Beatle was right in claiming that his song was sure to be a hit in the band's version: "Come And Get It" made it into the top ten in both the US and the UK. Griffiths left the band after some friction and was replaced by guitarist Joseph Charles Molland (* 1947), which was another reason to change the group name. In addition to Mal Evans, the Beatles' sound engineer Geoff Emerick took care of the band at Apple. Badfinger's first album, "Magic Christian Music", was released in 1970, the group's success stabilized somewhat, and at the end of 1970 the band's second LP, "No Dice", was released. "No Dice" again contained some hits, including "Without You". The song was initially taken over by Harry Nilsson, but after the success of its version, it was interpreted by many other singers.
Badfinger struggled with difficulties at Apple, but the four musicians 'real suffering only began after the contract with the Beatles' company had expired. Previously, their manager Bill Collins had signed a contract with the American music manager Stan Polley, who sent the band on a long tour of the United States. Badfinger drew from its reputation as a revenant band of the Beatles. This categorization was reinforced by the fact that the entire band or just a few members participated in recordings of Harrison, Starr and Lennon. The recordings for another, last LP for Apple dragged on. Todd Rundgren, who was to take over the production of Harrison's album - the Beatles guitarist was busy with the Concert for Bangladesh - canceled after disputes with Harrison; the band tried their hand at producing the LP. [7] Apple didn't like the result. So the young producer Chris Thomas was brought in, who finally made »Ass«, the title of the album, ready for publication.
Polley got the British band a new contract with Warner Bros. Records, but lengthy arguments about money began: The band, manager and label each had different ideas about the distribution of fees and royalties. Ham in particular suffered from the conditions and committed suicide in 1975. The musicians of the band agreed to dissolve Badfinger and more or less luckily joined other bands, Molland and Evans withdrew completely from the music business at times. In the early 1980s, both musicians revived the name Badfinger and went on tour - each with their own band - under this name. Further disputes over money led to Evans suicide in 1983.
Badfinger was basically a victim of the chaotic business policies of the Beatles company Apple. When the band signed the contract with Apple, they were practically woven into the Beatles' clan: Mal Evans, Peter Asher, Tony Visconti, Neil Aspinall, Geoff Emerick and of course Paul McCartney, John Lennon, Ringo Starr and George Harrison were once more, sometimes less, sometimes only occasionally involved in the band's fate. When McCartney gave the musicians his song "Come And Get It", it turned out to be a Danaer gift: The song brought the band so close to the Beatles that they never shed the reputation of being a Beatles clone was, especially since the Beatles broke up at the same time and the audience saw a replacement in Badfinger. Badfinger was and remained the band with the "real" Beatles song. [8]
"Come And Get It" is a testimony to McCartney's talent at any time to invent an audience-effective melody and to be able to turn it into a functioning song. McCartney recorded his composition himself within a very short time, played all the instruments himself and routinely used some of the stylistic devices that he had long since tried out. As there are: piano in eighth movements, bass mostly limited to the basic notes of the harmonies, some maracas, simple drum accompaniment. Piano accompaniment as in "Come And Get It" is available in almost every tempo in some other Beatles songs, it can also be found in countless other bands. To illustrate this, here are the significant two bars of the song's introduction:
Although clearly recorded as a demo, McCartney insisted on the Badfinger musicians that they should re-enact his version exactly; he even had him sing by all four musicians on a trial basis and finally chose Tom Evans - a native of Liverpool - as lead singer. The musicians complied with this request, but the maracas were replaced by a bell ring, the tempo is a little slower and the band members also sang background. Mike Gibbins also took the liberty of polishing up McCartney's drum specification a little; a comprehensible decision.
Assuming the key is Es, an introduction of two bars in the basic key is followed by an eight-bar verse, which consists of two four-bar identical sequences; These first verses are followed by a chorus of four bars in the dominant - since the text of the choruses is completely the same, one can also speak of a refrain. The second verse is two bars shorter, but the same harmony sequence is used in the 3 + 3 bars. In the final part, which is connected by a one-bar transition, a modified short version of the verse and a shorter ending are used; the latter is based on a harmonically modified variation of the chorus ’. "Come And Get It" has a total of 51 bars and a duration of 2 minutes and 22 seconds.
"Come And Get It" breathes, in the demo version by McCartney, the spirit of "Ram", McCartney's second solo album released in 1971 - handmade, not quite perfect, with an eye on the audience, maybe also for singing along. McCartney himself has not yet recorded the song in a "better" version, but played it in a concert in Bologna in November 2011.
Mary Hopkin (* 1950) also benefited from McCartney's generosity. Born in Wales, she had already gained some experience as a singer in a local folk group, then took part in a talent competition on the British television station ITV and won. The model Twiggy saw Hopkin on television and was so impressed by her singing that she referred Paul McCartney to the singer on occasion; Apple then signed Mary Hopkin. In August 1968, Hopkin released their first single, "Those Were The Days", produced by McCartney.
The song itself is actually an adaptation of a Russian song composed by Boris Fomin based on a text by the poet Konstantin Podrevsky; the American Gene Raskin replaced the text with the one that Mary Hopkin then sang. McCartney, on the other hand, had got to know the song, which Raskin had slightly modified and adapted to his text, at a performance by Raskin in London, bought the rights and given the melancholy, nostalgic melody with elements of traditional folk music, an arrangement that was strongly reminiscent of some of the Beatles' songs Time was ajar, but also sounded like something from another, a bygone era - "Those Where The Days". In fact, Fomin's song had already been recorded in the 1920s by the Georgian singer Tamara Tseretli and the Russian singer Alexander Vertinsky, and then by various interpreters. So Hopkin was one of the interpreters in a long chain, and even after her version of the song was published, this chain did not break; Fragments of the song can be found in countless other songs since then.
McCartney had commissioned the producer and arranger Richard Hewson [9] to write an arrangement for the composition for "Those Were The Days". Hewson decided on an instrumentation somewhere between art and folk music: In addition to a small string ensemble, a dulcimer (cimbalon), clarinet and mandolin perform, sometimes only sporadically, as in Beatles songs since "Rubber Soul", individual instruments often only for Seconds appear and sometimes this alone gives the respective song a certain atmosphere. Even if “Those Were The Days” did not come from McCartney, and neither did the arrangement, as is usual with Beatles compositions, from George Martin, the song was still associated with the music of the Beatles.
In contrast, Goodbye, published in 1969, was actually written by Paul McCartney. The success of "Those Were The Days" called for another single to be released as soon as possible. In a very similar way to "Come And Get It" for Badfinger, McCartney initially recorded a demo tape on his own, Hewson wrote an arrangement for strings, background choir and some brass instruments. During the recording, McCartney played bass, drums and guitar and also contributed a little percussion by pounding his thighs in a rhythmically adjusted manner. The irony of the story: "Goodbye" brought it to second place in the British charts, but at the same time "Get Back" by the Beatles took first place. "Goodbye" is built classically, eight-bar verses in identical harmony alternate with eight-bar refrains. McCartney had chosen C major as the key for his demo version, for the Hopkins voice the key was raised to E major.
McCartney showed by his commitment to Mary Hopkin and Badfinger that he believed in Apple's success.Lennon, on the other hand, was far less interested in the musicians and bands under contract with Apple, and Harrison also seemed to keep his distance. [10] Nevertheless, he also gave two songs to others: "Sour Milk Sea", published in 1968 by Jackie Lomax, as well as "Badge", presented in 1969 by Cream, comes from Harrison. There is even a demo version of Sour Milk Sea, composed in India in 1968, which the four Beatles recorded in Harrison's house; this version was not officially published. In addition to Harrison, McCartney, Ringo Starr, Eric Clapton and the pianist Nicky Hopkins also took part in the recording by Lomax. The decision of the record company - Lomax was also under contract with Apple - to release the singles "Hey Jude", "Those Were The Days" and "Sour Milk Sea" in the USA on the same day proved fatal: the radio stations watched each other faced three Apple singles and many decided, in order not to be labeled as an "Apple broadcaster", to play Lomax's single less or not at all. After all: "Sour Milk Sea" is the only song in which three of the four Beatles acted as a backing band for a musician outside the band. [11] During the recording of James Taylor's homesick song "Carolina in My Mind", released in 1968 on his debut album "James Taylor" on Apple Records, at least Paul McCartney played bass and George Harrison sang background. Taylor's LP was recorded in the Trident Studio in London, the very studio where the Beatles were working on their double album "The Beatles". The instrumentation and arrangement - once again written by Hewson - for Taylor's song are always »beatlesque«, McCartney's characteristic bass playing, just as easy to recognize as Harrison's tone of voice.
Harrison was actually quite involved when it came to Apple, although the results of his work were not as successful as McCartney's. He produced Billy Preston's first album for Apple, "That’s The Way God Planned It" (1969). On this occasion the Beatle met Doris Troy, an American soul singer who lived in London and who had made a name for herself as an arranger for background singing roles. Negative experiences with her former label Atlantic Records made the singer act cautious: When Harrison offered her a contract with Apple, she asked for three: one as a singer, one as a producer and one as an arranger. Harrison agreed and also offered her his collaboration. An illustrious group of musicians took part in the recordings for the singer's first album at Apple, but in retrospect the cast list also offered a glimpse into the past and future of the Beatles: In addition to Harrison, the session musicians included Ringo Starr and Klaus Voormann , Billy Preston, Stephen Stills, Peter Frampton, Alan White, Eric Clapton, Bonnie and Delaney Bramlett, Leon Russell and Rita Coolidge. Some of the stars did not stop at instrumental help, but also contributed songs or at least ideas for songs: Harrison himself, Starr, Stills and Voormann. The result, the album "Doris Troy", was indeed remarkable, as it contained soul that could easily compete with the best results from the USA. But: None of the songs had an echo of the music of the Beatles. The cover version of "Get Back", which was also recorded during the recording, was only published with a 1992 reissue. It is astonishing that this album did not become very well known among the public; on the other hand, recording, production and release took place in the final stages of the Beatles' existence as a band, and Apple itself found itself in a difficult position.
In retrospect, there are two phases in the work of the Beatles for other performers: One from around 1962 to 1964, then again from 1968. These two phases are different: While the first phase coincided with the marriage of the first successes of Lennon and McCartney and it is often difficult to distinguish which parts the two musicians had in the compositions, the second phase is mainly due to McCartney - even if all the songs are both the early ones and "Come And Get It" for Badfinger and "Goodbye" for Mary Name Hopkin Lennon / McCartney as the originator. The reason may be to be found in the different interests that the two musicians had for their company Apple. McCartney intervened directly in the affairs of the company, Lennon held back. Of course, at no time did Lennon shake songs out of his sleeve as easily as McCartney, often he got stuck with his fragments, and then lost interest in them when McCartney or George Martin did not come to his aid. Some of his impressive songs came about this way, like "Tomorrow Never Knows," "Strawberry Fields Forever," "A Day In The Life," and in some ways, "Happiness Is A Warm Gun," which Lennon made three of his songs - Put together fragments, one of the few real collaborations Lennon, McCartney and Harrison during the recording of the album "The Beatles". Such a way of working naturally made it almost impossible to offer other performers "finished" songs. In addition, Lennon was in a difficult period of his life, especially in the early months of Apple.
The second phase in the Beatles' career was short-lived. The animosities among the four musicians had intensified over the course of the year and McCartney prepared - consciously or unconsciously - like George Harrison his separation from the band, the generosity dried up or had a clear motive - namely to become independent from the Beatles do.
Neither “Come And Get It” nor “Goodbye” are cover versions, just like the songs that the individual Beatles used to pass on to other bands and musicians. Cover versions of Beatles songs, on the other hand, are hard to keep track of, and there are said to be over 2000 versions of "Yesterday" alone. There have been cover versions almost from the beginning of her career, and they have been around until recently, as the tribute album "The Art Of Paul McCartney" released in late 2014 shows: The album contains more than three dozen songs by Paul McCartney - first published by The Beatles, Wings and under his own name - sung by Bob Dylan ("Things We Said Today"), Billy Joel ("Maybe I'm Amazed"), Heart ("Band On The Run"), Yussuf, among others Islam ("The Long And Winding Road"), Jeff Lynne ("Junk"), Barry Gibbb ("When I'm Sixty Four"), Roger Daltrey ("Helter Skelter"), Chrissie Hynde ("Let It Be") , Steve Miller ("Hey Jude"), Alice Cooper ("Eleanor Rigby"), Booker T. Jones ("Can't Buy Me Love"), and Ian McCulloch ("For No One"). [12]
Of course, this album is a tribute album, so the songs were interpreted by musicians and bands who did not publish a previously published song as a cover version for commercial reasons, but rather "The Art Of Paul McCartney" contains cover versions that the participants involved Perform musicians in recognition of McCartney's achievement; the desire to benefit from the popularity of the songs is not necessarily in the foreground.
There are collections of cover versions and tribute songs from the Beatles' songs in large numbers, as well as cover bands and tribute bands, bands that imitate the Beatles down to the last detail. Both forms of bands really existed when the Beatles no longer existed as a band. The audience's demand for Beatles songs in the concert hall was met in the Federal Republic of Germany by the Beatles Revival Band, a band that was founded in Frankfurt am Main in 1976 and has existed until recently despite some changes in musicians. Other Beatles cover bands include the American band The Tribute (founded in 1984), Liverpool Legends, Backwards, The American English, The Fab Four, The BritBeat, The Bootleg Beatles, Britains Finest (The Complete Beatles Experience) and others. Some of these bands are planned down to the smallest detail as a phenomenon - this applies to appearance, behavior, instruments and playing styles up to the obligatory line-up of the electric bass guitar with a left-hander. The American pianist Mark Lewis turned the career of the Beatles into a business model, employing several musicians for his shows entitled "Rain", who consistently master the Beatles' repertoire down to the last detail and - then dressed appropriately - their careers of the Beatles in chronological order based on the recordings in the concert hall. Other formations, such as the Austrian duo MonaLisa Twins - two young women with a band - sing the songs of the Fab Four, sing them exactly, but at the same time benefit from the given otherness of their appearance.
While the goal of all of these bands is to come closer to the model rather than less, others are transforming the music of the Beatles into a different style of pop music. That was often the case very early after the publication of the respective templates: When The Marmalade sang "Ob-La-Di, Ob-La-Da" by the Beatles - in 1968, a few weeks after the album "The Beatles" was released was - they still followed the example closely. The same applies to many other cover versions of Beatles songs, up to recently, such as publications by musicians from the area of ​​the progressive rock bands Dream Theater, Spock’s Beard and Transatlantic; in particular the drummer Mike Portnoy and the singer, guitarist and keyboard player Neal Morse are both staunch and knowledgeable admirers of the Liverpool band. [13] And the American group Cheap Trick, whose music is often associated with the music of the Beatles and whose members are ardent fans of the band, released a recording of a concert in 2009 in which they recorded the entire album "Sergeant Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band" performed almost true to the original. The Flaming Lips thought nothing of being true to the original when they presented their version of the album in 2014, with the deviating title "With A Little Help from My Fwends": An impressive number of more or less well-known musicians were involved in the recordings of the songs participated - including Moby, Dr. Dog, Chuck Inglish & Morgan Delt, Tegan and Sara, Foxygen & Ben Goldwasser, but above all Miley Cyrus - the buyers of the album were spoiled by the almost permanently dominant distortion of the sound.
Other musicians had almost no qualms about taking possession of the Beatles' songs and changing them. Jimi Hendrix, for example, when he played the title song in a concert two days after the Beatles LP "Sergeant Pepper’s Lonely Hearts Club Band" was released - in the presence of Paul McCartney and George Harrison. Or Wilson Pickett when he presented his version of "Hey Jude" in 1969 - he had thus remained in the idiom of the then current soul. Over the decades Beatles songs have been translated into almost every style of rock and pop music. The Italian blues guitarist Rudy Rotta played songs from "Love Me Do" and "I Feel Fine" to "In My Life" and "Dear Prudence" in the style of conventional blues rock - although most of the templates do not have a blues form - the German Rock band Ringo Ska made rough ska out of "I Feel Fine", "Lady Madonna and" All You Need Is Love "and even" Yesterday ", and a whole guard of musicians and bands, including Alice Cooper, Steve Vai, Duff McKagan , Billy Idol, Steve Stevens, Yngwie Malmsteen, Mike Porcaro, Greg Bisonette, Doug Pinnick, Tony Levin, Kenny Aronoff, Tim Bogert, Chris Slade and Aynsley Dunbar released the album "Butchering The Beatles" in 2006, brought together by Bob Kulick for example "Hey Bulldog", "Back In The USSR", "I Feel Fine", "Taxman" and "Hey Jude" in mostly plausible heavy metal versions. The title and the cover of the CD released in 2006 show four men in white coats, covered over and over with pieces of raw meat, based on the notorious "Butcher Cover", which was rejected by EMI at the time. In contrast to the model, the Beatles LP "Yesterday and Today" (1966), the picture is a drawing.
If »Butchering The Beatles« actually paid homage to the Beatles, this only applies to the albums of the American band Beatallica with the caveat that the musicians enjoy their routinely implemented idea, songs of the Mixing Beatles with some of the heavy metal band Metallica is in the foreground. At least the title always suggests a spoof of the originals, less often a parody: For example, “Sergeant Pepper’s Lonely Hearts Club Band” became “Sergeant Hetfield’s Motorbreath Pub Band” (2007). There is far less parody about the music itself.
As early as 1966, Chet Atkins had some compositions by Lennon / McCartney appear like genuine country and western songs, and had musicians such as Dandy, John Holt, The Israelites, Phyllis Dillon, Nicky Thomas, Joe's All Stars, Del Davis and The Maytals came together for the album "Tribute To The Beatles Reggae Style", presented in 2001 - the three vinyl long-playing records contain reggae and ska versions of songs such as "Yesterday", "Hey Jude", "Come Together" and over three dozen more . [14] The Supremes provided a soul version of some of the songs as early as 1964 with their album "A Bit Of Liverpool".
Musicians and bands that the British magazine MOJO asked over the years to take part in Beatles tribute albums succumbed to the ambition of change. Mostly little and very little known bands were invited to take part in the recordings and so the well-known songs by Lennon, McCartney and Harrison often show completely unfamiliar faces. [15]
There are also a multitude of unexpected curiosities in this field, but some of them have a considerable effect on the listener - in terms of enthusiastic approval as well as frosty rejection. This includes, even at a very early stage, an LP by the American mezzo-soprano Cathy Berberian, which was released in Great Britain in 1967 under the title “Beatles Arias” - in the USA with the title “Revolution”, in Germany with “Beatles Arias” For Special Fans «. Cathy Berberian, who was also a funny composer and in many respects far more "pop" than some pop artists of the time, had Beatles songs such as "Ticket To Ride", "I Want To Hold Your Hand", "Michelle", "Eleanor Rigby", "Here, There And Everywhere" were sung, and their version of "Help!" Became popular at the time. She was not accompanied by a rock band, but by a small orchestra. Berberian's endeavors were by no means "far-fetched" or even attributed to a fashionable impulse: at a very early point in time she had devoted herself not only to the interpretation of new music, but also to early music from the early Baroque, for example by Claudio Monteverdi and Henry Purcell, in particular smaller forms, and traces of old English vocal composition in some of the Beatles' songs - "Eleanor Rigby", "Can't Buy Me Love" and "Help!"
The American conductor, pianist and musicologist Joshua Rifkin went one step further in the same direction. [16] In 1965 he released an LP entitled "The Baroque Beatles Book" containing arrangements of a series of Beatles songs in the instrumentation of baroque suites and cantatas, based on the instrumentation stereotype of Georg Friedrich Handel. "The Royale Beatlesworks Musicke", MBE 1963 brought together "I Want To Hold Your Hand", "I'll Cry Instead", "You've Got To Hide Your Love Away" and "Ticket To Ride" in one suite, Murray The Piano tickler performed the "Epstein Variations" MBE 69A [17], "Please Please Me", "Help!" And "I'll Be Back" resulted in a "Cantata for the Third Saturday" under the title "Last Night I Said" after The Shea Stadium ”, MBE 58,000, and the album was completed by a trio sonata,“ Das Kaferlein ”, MBE 4 1/4, constructed from“ Eight Days A Week ”,“ She Loves You ”,“ Thank You Girl "And" A Hard Day's Night ". [18] In view of the stylishly arranged arrangements, parody is out of the question at first glance. But these are in fact parodies, less of the music of the Beatles than the stylistic devices of composers of the Baroque era, but above all it is a swipe at the "scene" of early music that emerged in the 1950s and 1960s crossed the line into sectarianism more than once. Of course, Rifkin was aware of being part of this scene himself.
Even if he did not necessarily want to offer parodies, the arrangements of Beatles music and Bach compositions that the American pianist John Bayless presented on the CD "Bach On Abbey Road" in 1987 are ingenious games with the given.In his arrangements he combined 17 songs by the Beatles with piano works by Johann Sebastian Bach, mainly from the two parts of the "Well-Tempered Clavier". The attraction of these arrangements for the listener is of course to recognize the respective templates, which is all the more difficult since only the titles of the Beatles songs used are given. Coincidence or not - many of Bayless' arrangements radiate a certain melancholy, the origin of which can almost always be found in the melodies of Lennon and McCartney. Various more or less popular songs and song fragments are sung again and again to the Venezuelan pianist Gabriela Montero when she asks the audience for suggestions for her improvisations during her piano evenings - melodies by the Liverpool band are very often included, which the pianist then sometimes in Latin American, sometimes in the baroque, sometimes in the impressionistic. Improvisations of this kind are less the work of pianists - which is why Gabriela Montero is so conspicuous - than organists - improvisations on demand are not unknown to organists, and one or the other concert organist does it just like Montero - melodies can be hummed to the front, sing aloud or even just call out the title of the intended composition and turn it into little ad-hoc tricks. The reason why there are often compositions by the Beatles is not their particular suitability for improvisation, but the unbroken popularity of these songs, some of which have long since reached the rank of folk songs.
Compared to Bayless and Montero, the arrangements that Big Band leader Werner Müller and jazz clarinetist Rolf Kühn wrote for the 12 cellists of the Berliner Philharmoniker are more conventional and far more typical cover versions, albeit with unusual instrumentation. [19] Both Müller and Kühn adhered closely to the templates and, above all, endeavored to avoid any uniformity that could have been provoked by the restriction to 12 instruments of the same type. These arrangements had something sensational for a short time, probably more because of the ensemble, which comes from a highly respected orchestra, than because of the risk of adding arrangements of songs by the Beatles to their repertoire. Albums of this type basically belong to the large group of those who use the compositions of Lennon and McCartney in particular, but remain in their own musical style range. These of course include the blues, soul, ska, country and heavy metal musicians mentioned above, but at least blues, soul, ska, country and heavy metal can still be seen as styles that are not entirely unknown to the Beatles themselves. they had blues (“Yer Blues”), soul (“Oh Darling”), ska (“Ob-La-Di, Ob-La-Da”), country (“Rocky Racoon”) and heavy metal (“Helter Skelter) «in the repertoire.
Far away from rock, of course, there are cover versions of Beatles songs published by jazz musicians, for example. The American pianist Ramsey Lewis, who with his trio - to which the bassist Eldee Young and the drummer Isaac Holt belonged - recorded two tracks by Lennon / McCartney for the album "Hang On Ramsey!" A Hard Day's Night "and" And I Love Her ". More Beatles songs followed on his next LPs until he released “Mother Nature’s Son” in 1968, an LP that only contained versions of a few songs from the recently released album “The Beatles”. During his career, Lewis never hesitated when it came to interpreting compositions from country, folk, pop, rock and even the hit songs ("You are beautiful with me"; 1960). Critics did not hesitate to deny that he was a jazz musician at all. Vibraphonist Gary Burton did not have to put up with this accusation, although he too presented his version of a Beatles song very early in 1966 with "Norwegian Wood (This Bird Has Flown)" as part of the album "The Time Machine".
Since then, the flood of Lennon / McCartney compositions converted into the jazz idiom has not fallen, so that complete collections can be published with ease. [20] Over the years Stanley Turrentine ("Can't Buy Me Love"), Lee Morgan ("Yesterday"), Buddy Rich ("Norwegian Wood"), Bud Shank and Chet Baker ("Hello Goodbye"), Grant Green ("A Day In The Life"), Stanley Jordan ("Eleanor Rigby"), Tony Williams ("Blackbird"), Holly Cole ("I've Just Seen A Face"), Kevin Hays ("And I Love Her "), Bobby McFerrin (" Drive My Car "," Come Together "), Jaco Pastorius (" Dear Prudence "), Medeski Scofield Martin & Wood (" Julia "), Inger Marie Gunderson (" Fool On The Hill / Nature Boy «), Dianne Reeves and Cassandra Wilson (» Come Together «) turned towards the compositions of Lennon / McCartney. More recently, the drummer Brian Melvin, the pianist Dave Kikoski and the bassist Charles Fambrough have released some CDs under the collective title "Beatle Jazz" which only contained cover versions of Beatles pieces. The three musicians also brought in well-known jazz musicians such as Mike Stern, Michael and Randy Brecker, Jean Thielemans, Joe Lovano, Larry Grenadier and John Scofield to the recordings (for example: "All You Need"; 2007). The appeal of the British band's songs also had an impact on singer Sarah Vaughan ("Songs of The Beatles", 1981), The London Jazz Four ("Take A New Look At The Beatles", 1967) and, more recently, the pianist Brad Mehldau, who repeatedly interpreted individual songs by Lennon / McCartney. [21]
Even if one cannot say that these Beatles compositions have the rank of jazz standards - which often come from older American pop music, from musicals and film soundtracks - even committed jazz fans no longer turn up their noses, when they realize that one or the other jazz musician sometimes plays a Beatles song. Not all Lennon / McCartney songs can handle being interpreted without the lyrics.
Almost from the very beginning of the Beatles' career with Parlophone, the popularity of the Beatles songs was so great that countless individual musicians, bands and orchestras wanted to participate. Rifkin and the cellists of the Berliner Philharmoniker were by no means the only ones who wrapped the compositions in the sound of a traditional orchestra. As early as 1964, The Hollyridge Strings did the same with two LPs ("The Beatles Song Book"; "The Beatles Song Book Volume II"), in 1969 it was the Boston Pops under the direction of Arthur Fiedler ("Play The Beatles") A year later The Percy Faith Strings ("The Beatles Album"), and in 1979 The Royal Liverpool Philharmonic Orchestra published his "Beatles Concerto". The Slovak pianist, conductor and composer Peter Breiner turned compositions by the Beatles arranged for the classical orchestra into a whole series of CDs: Since the early 1990s, he has been releasing songs by the Liverpool band, arranged in the style of baroque composers such as J.S. Bach, A. Vivaldi and G.F. Handel, sometimes summarized in baroque orchestral suites, but overall not from the irony of the Elaborate Rifkins. Still other orchestras teamed up with tribute bands in order to bring the Beatles songs on stage, which were difficult or impossible to perform in concert; These include The Beatles' Magical Orchestra and The Cleveland Orchestra.
Other formations between the salon orchestra and the big band were on par: in 1968 the 101 strings played "Hits Written By The Beatles", Franck Pourcel followed with his orchestra in 1970, Count Basie released the album "Basie On The Beatles" in 1969, Wadim Brodski in 1986 one »Beatles Symphony«, composed of Beatles compositions. The German big band leader James Last did not stand aside either, and in 1983 he launched the record market under the sinuous title "James Last plays the greatest songs by John Lennon, Paul McCartney, Ringo Starr, George Harrison, known as The Beatles".
Changing the instrumentation is of course the easiest way to benefit from the attractiveness of the Beatles' songs and still add something of your own. This occasionally leads to interesting results that are unfamiliar to the templates, but now and then to at least idiosyncratic results. Marty Gold released his album "Moog Plays The Beatles" as early as 1969 - only the year before had Wendy Carlos [22] presented her LP "Switched-On Bach", with which Robert Moog's modular synthesizer became known to a larger audience. Early on, shortly after Moog had presented his electronic instrument, rock musicians were interested in this possibility of creating electronic sounds, and the Beatles had also used it in the last phase of their band's existence, for example in "Maxwell's Silver Hammer", "I Want You (She's So Heavy)", "Here Comes The Sun" and "Because". [23] George Harrison had met Moog's synthesizer in 1968 through Bernie Krause [24], used it for the recordings of Jackie Lomax's album "Is This What You Want?" And immediately bought one; in May 1969 Harrison released his second solo album "Electronic Sound," for which the synthesizer was used extensively.
The popularity of the Beatles songs of course also results in some curiosities when it comes to adapting them for certain purposes. It is hardly surprising that there are arrangements for brass orchestra, just as there are no disco versions, and real fans of the British punk band The Damned will certainly have a single by the group released in 1976 on the shelf, the B-side of which has a cover version of »Help ! «Contains. Rather, the listener may be amazed at the project "The Beatles Complete On Ukulele", started in 2009 by the American musician and record producer Roger Greenawalt and the British musician and producer David Barratt and completed in 2012, with cover versions of all 185 Beatles songs released on record transferring and putting the ukulele in the center. In fact, the ukulele is involved in each of these cover versions and can usually also be heard, but there are very varied versions of the songs, across past and current styles of pop music, consistently competently performed. [25]
The album series "Baby Beatles!" (2013/2014) by the formation Caspar Babypants seems to be a joke indeed. Behind it is the singer and guitarist of the American band The Presidents of the United States of America, Chris Ballew. The versions that Ballew fabricated from the compositions of the Beatles are of course reminiscent of the bubblegum of the 1960s, the songs have changed the instrumentation, altogether gimmicked and ideal to at least frighten die-hard Beatles fans. [26]
Of course, Caspar Babypants 'versions of the Beatles' songs have a certain joke, are meant seriously and are technically soundly recorded - Ballew is also astonishingly successful with his almost two dozen Caspar Babypants CDs. "Baby Beatles!" Is reminiscent of one aspect of a series of Beatles songs that music critic William Mann addressed as early as 1967 when, on the occasion of his review of the album "Sergeant Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band", he referred to the infantility of some Beatles songs - and their consequences for pop music - pointed out: [27]

“Just now the Monkees are idols of the preteenage generation and are not quite despised by those approaching O-Levels. This has been their year, in the absence of anything more remarkable, and the showmanship involved has to be admired, if not the musical artistry. I suspect that their songs were written by a computer fed with the first two Beatle L.P.s and The Oxford Book of Nursery Rhymes. It has also been a period of nursery lyrics. The Lennon-McCartney Yellow Submarine [referring to the song published in 1966; BH] set the ball rolling and of late we have had no end of songs whose words bring out the delayed adolescence in all of us: the Alan Price Set's Simon Smith and his Dancing Bear, Manfred Mann's Haha said the clown, Sandie Shaw's Puppet on a String (which alarmingly, though to the delight of unmusical patriots, won the Eurovision Song Contest), the Hollies' Lullaby for Tim, Dave Clark's Tabitha Twitchit. All these encourage separatists in their belief that pop music is strictly for the preadolescent - not to mention a heavy-handedly facetious number about a laughing gnome which was ecstatically plugged for several weeks by the pirate stations but steadfastly remained the flop it deserved to be. «

This list of songs about peculiar characters could be expanded considerably on the basis of the lyrics of Beatles songs. [28] It was probably this type of pop song that John Lennon attributed to Paul McCartney and dismissed as "Paul's Granny Music Shit". [29] On the other hand, it must be admitted that it is often precisely these songs that point to fictional people that stick in the listener's memory and are therefore sometimes - and by no means with ultimate justification - viewed as the "core" of the Beatles' oeuvre.
Beatles songs and the people who appear in them can also be taken literally: The American theater, opera, musical and film director Julie Taymor developed the story for the 2007 movie "Across the Universe" with Dick Clement and Ian La Frenais «. The characters in the film are all named after characters from Beatles songs - Jude, Sadie, Prudence, Lucy, Dr. Robert, Mr. Kite, Jojo, Max. The corresponding songs of the Beatles are assigned to these figures. The cover versions stick more or less vaguely to the models, not all are played out completely, some are only hinted at - a total of 33 compositions by Lennon, McCartney and Harrison. The blues-rock singer Dana Fuchs owes a good part of her career, which was attractive after the film's release, to her interpretation of "Helter Skelter", an angry parforce ride through the song, contained in the film. For a long time »Helter Skelter« was part of her own concert program. Your cover version could also give the listener the idea that "Helter Skelter" from the Beatles provided some inspiration for Page, Plant, Bonham and Jones, i.e. Led Zeppelin.
Many a cover version seems like an involuntary parody, and it is possible that a cover version of a Beatles song is a parody without being recognized as such. Irony is not always immediately recognizable even in rock and pop music, which is by no means poor in irony. Because the four musicians themselves opened every door for those who followed - they always had already prepared what others then offered in detail. Here an imitated Chuck Berry, there imitated Beach Boys, there a parody of the British blues and there a Beatles song as an ironic commentary on another Beatles song. This ironic attitude towards rock and pop music became evident at the latest in 1967 with "Sergeant Pepper’s Lonely Hearts Club Band", which was made abundantly clear with the double album "The Beatles" released a year later. Of course, songs like “Back In The USSR”, “Ob-La-Di, Ob-La-Da”, “Yer Blues”, “Rocky Racoon”, “Good Night”, “Piggies” and “Honey Pie” are sometimes bad Parodies, and with »Glass Onion« they aimed at themselves. Even »Revolution I« can be understood as a parody, just as »Revolution 9« is by no means avant-garde, but an imitation of the musical avant-garde of an epoch that has already become past. The question, of course, is how you can parody a Beatles song when the four Liverpool musicians were masters of parody themselves.
The term “parody” has at least two meanings in music: In the Baroque era, in the age of figured bass, it was understood to be an existing vocal composition to which a new text was given - there are several examples in the work of Johann Sebastian Bach . The connotation with irony and humor is not given here; the composition was also adjusted only in details, but not significantly changed.
This contrasts with the generally accepted meaning of the parody as a musical caricature: the stylistic peculiarities as well as individual details of a template, given by the author (s), are singled out, reinforced, exaggerated and thus made unequivocally recognizable. A musical parody is only recognizable, or at least more easily recognized, when the text is also changed, the original meaning diverted and thus also distorted. [30] Finally, of course, the cover of an LP can also be parodied, which is not a rare case. Seen over everything, a parody is a paraphrase of the given that has been displaced into the grotesque.
This can be demonstrated with a song by the Beatles - or better: Paul McCartneys. "Back In The U.S.S.R" makes an ironic reference to some songs that the Beach Boys released as paraphrases to rock pieces by Chuck Berry.Above all, this refers to "Surfin 'USA", which is based on Berry's "Back in the USA", actually a plagiarism. [31] The Beach Boys song turns Berry's sarcastic text about life in the USA, which is a lot more arduous for a black than for a white, into the opposite. McCartney's song takes on the original meaning and now in turn sings about the virtues of the Soviet Union, but proves this in response to "California Girls" by the Beach Boys with "Girls" in the Ukraine, Moscow and Georgia. McCartney allegedly did the latter on the advice of Mike Love, a member of the Beach Boys, who got to know the song in a demo version during the Beatles' stay in India. [32]
Lennon, McCartney and Harrison - Starr had left the band angrily shortly before the recording, if only for a few days - imitated the Beach Boys song, for example in the background vocals, but also in the use of a six-string bass guitar from Fender - this instrument has been used by some surf rock bands - and in the final guitar solo, which consists essentially of a single, incessantly repeated note - this is also one of the hallmarks of surf songs. [33] The Beatles' parody is therefore multi-layered: text, instrumentation, arrangement were adapted to the intended templates, but the template as such was not cited; of course, the music of the Beach Boys was so well known at the time that any informed listener immediately recognized the irony of the Beatles' song.
The album "The Beatles" contains a number of such parodies, including "Glass Onion" even one of their own music. This in turn made it difficult for other musicians to parody the music of the Beatles, to ironize it, without the parody also becoming an homage to the music of the Fab Four. This was almost impossible with regard to recordings of the band's early albums, because the music of the Beatles - text, form, instrumentation - was no different from the music of other Mersey bands. If you parodied the Beatles, you parodied the style, the Mersey sound, but not Lennon, McCartney, Harrison and Best or Starkey. The "Beatles sound", the specifics of Beatles music, only began to develop with the albums "Help!" And "Rubber Soul" and was then easy and recognizable to parody since "Revolver". The first powerful parodies of the music, especially by Lennon / McCartney, did not appear until the second half of the 1960s. [34]
When Frank Zappa and his band Mothers of Invention in 1968 did not actually parody the music of the Beatles with their concept album "We're Only In It For The Money", but the cover designed by Cal Schenkel made a very clear satirical reference to the cover of " Sergeant Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band "," We're Only In It For The Money "can clearly be seen as a parody of the Beatles' album. Especially since Zappa had the hippie movement in view as one of the themes of his LP, which, if not caused by the Beatles, was then reinforced and also exploited, not only by »Sgt. Pepper ”, but especially through the single“ All You Need Is Love ”. Zappa just thought hippies were stupid.
It is certainly no coincidence that the first high-profile, thoroughly nasty parody of a Beatles LP hit the US market. "We're Only In It For The Money" was also a reaction to the "British Invasion," which began in February 1964 with the arrival of the Beatles in the USA.

“For five years from 1964 to 1969 the American pop, fashion, an film scenes were inundated and almost overpowered by Briths acts, designers, and actors. Pop acts who barely registered in the British charts in that time were scoring top 10 hits Stateside (Chad & Jeremy immediately spring to mind); Time magazine, that international clarion of all things American, put Swinging London on its cover; Oscars went to a string of British actors, directors, and films; hems across the nation drew up as Mary Quant, Twiggy, and Jean Shrimpton were paraded in chain clothes stores from coast to coast. The Monkees, the only American-grown pop act to rival the Brits in the charts, were created in Hollywood in the image of the Beatles and had a cute British singer (Davy Jones). "[35]

Barry Miles rightly points out that, after analyzing the Beatles' success, the Monkees were also successful - "created" actually means "created" because, unlike the Beatles, The Monkees were actually a test-tube band. The role model for this group was less the Beatles as musicians than the Beatles as actors, the model for the television series "The Monkees" was the Beatles film "A Hard Day's Night" from 1964. The "inventor" of the Monkees, Bob Rafelson, had wanted to put his idea of ​​a TV series about a rock band into practice back in 1962, but at that time there was no British Invasion. In the USA none of the TV giants and record moguls even saw the possibility of a "British Invasion" of the kind and extent that broke out from 1964 onwards. Also, rock music as a whole was by no means so attractive that Rafelson's idea could arouse interest on TV stations in the USA; this of course changed with the Beatles' "phenomenon" and even more so with the British Invasion.
The songs that the Monkees sang were partly vague imitations of the Beatles' songs, with a safe margin from the role models of savvy songwriters and lyricists such as Neil Diamond, Leiber / Stoller, Gerry Goffin and Carole King as well as Tommy Boyce and Bobby Hart prepared. The Monkee productions were never about parodies, especially since they initially only focused on one aspect of Beatles music - that of songs for children and teenagers. The Monkees lost their image of a bubble gum band only later and with great effort. The Monkees were, of course, far removed from Zappa's evil sarcasms.
The first parodies did not concern the music of the Beatles at all, but their appearance, their appearance and possibly one or the other detail of the language. An appearance by Hans-Joachim Kulenkampff, Bully Buhlan, Gerhard Wendland and Willy Berking, who appeared in a short film on February 19, 1966 as part of the TV quiz show "EWG" [36], has been remembered in Germany until recently. took place. Kulenkampff, Berking, Buhlan and Wendland, with mop-top wigs and uniformly dressed in suits similar to those of the Beatles, moved to the original music ("She Loves You") as we knew it from the Beatles' performances. At the time, the affirmative exclamations "Yeah, yeah, yeah" were still so unusual for a German audience that they became synonymous with the music of the Beatles. [37]
In October 1967, moviegoers could see another Beatles parody when they attended a screening of the cartoon "The Jungle Book": Towards the end of the film produced by the Walt Disney Studios, Mowgli meets the main character of the film, on four vultures. These four vultures - Buzzie, Flaps, Ziggy and Dizzy - have long hair, appear as a unit, are somewhat disrespectful and mock Mowgli for his long, thin legs, but then try to cheer the boy up with their singing. No Beatles song is parodied or imitated, but the four birds sing their song "That’s What Friends Are For" in the style of a barber shop; There are no further indications of a connection with "Nowhere Man" ("Rubber Soul", 1965), the introduction of which is also sung in a narrow movement, although it is of course conceivable. What is interesting, however, is the language of the cartoon characters: if not perfect, they speak with a Liverpool accent. One of the vultures is voiced by Chad Stuart of the Chad & Jeremy duo. [38]
The advantage of a film over a simple sound carrier is that it can create clarity. In Kulenkampff's show as well as in Disney's animated film »Jungle Book« the viewer and listener need not recognize the parody - they can pass over what is shown with a shrug or perhaps find it funny even if they don't recognize the parody. A parody only works in the intended sense if the recipient has the opportunity to relate what is shown to the original; he has to know the original and he has to recognize the grotesquely exaggerated in what is shown in order to be able to appreciate the meaning of the parody. The parody thus presents itself as a special case of the quotation, the purpose of which is to relativize the original and to make it ridiculous.
A pictorial representation then of course leaves little room not to recognize a parody as such if the recipient is familiar with the original. For his performance, Kulenkampff did not even have to approach the music itself and change it in order to make his sketch recognizable as a parody; it was enough to conjure up the Beatles' image as a group of musicians and to exaggerate it a little. [39] Likewise, the four vultures at Disney neither had to perform an original Beatles song, nor sing or recite a text that would undoubtedly have pointed to the Beatles - it was sufficient to have an appearance that vaguely pointed to the Beatles and the Liverpool accent. To those who knew even a little about the Beatles - that was probably the case for the majority of moviegoers at the time - the relationship to the band and thus the parody was immediately obvious.
But this also shows that parody in music does not work with musical means alone, text is always required, and if possible something visual. This can be seen above all in the parody of the Beatles, The Rutles.
The Rutles have a long history, linked on the one hand to Neil Innes from The Bonzo Dog Doo-Dah Band, and on the other hand to Eric Idle from the comedian group Monthy Python. Both groups were of some importance for British rock music in the 1960s: The Bonzo Dog Band had worked with Paul McCartney and had also appeared briefly in the Beatles film "Magical Mystery Tours", Monty Python had a considerable influence on British bands, especially Jethro Tull. Later, George Harrison, who was very interested in the comedian troupe for a while, produced the film "Monty Python's Life of Brian" (1979; director: Terry Jones; German: "The life of Brian") and was briefly seen in one scene . [40]
Innes and Idle formed the band The Prefab Four in 1975; the name of the group already suggests the Beatles, who were and are also called The Fab Four. Actually, nothing more than a short sketch was planned in the comedy series "Rutland Weekend Television" [41], but the Beatles parody had awakened the creativity of Innes and Idle, so that in 1978 the film "All You Need Is Cash (The Rutles) «was published; thus the name The Rutles was finally established. The band included for the television production Neil Innes as Nasty (for John Lennon), David Battley as Stig (Paul McCartney), Eric Idle as Dirk (George Harrison) and John Halsey as Barry (Ringo Starr); Battley and Idle switched roles for the film. The music was recorded by Neil Innes, Ollie Halsall, Rikky Fataar, John Halsey and Andy Brown, all musicians except Brown played several instruments, Innes sang the Lennon voice, Halsall McCartney, Fataar Harrison and Halsey Starr. A complete band history was spun around The Rutles, which was based on that of the Beatles, but was also a parody through and through. From the Cavern Club - or the Hamburg Star Club? - The Rat Keller, from Brian Epstein Leggy Mountbatten, from Beatlemania of course Rutlemania, from Apple Corps. became Rutles Corps., whose artists under contract there included Les Garçons de la Plage (The French Beach Boys), The Punk Floyd and Crosby, Stills, Nash, Young. Gifted and Black. [42]
In 1978 the soundtrack was released under the title "The Rutles". The LP, which contained 14 songs composed by Neil Innes, was packed in a folding cover that presented the album as a best-of album: on the front side were parodies of the cover of "Meet The Beatles" ("Meet The Rutles" ), "Sergeant Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band" ("Sgt. Rutter's Darts Club Band"), "Magical Mystery Tour" ("Tragical History Tour") and "Let It Be" ("Let It Rot") are printed. Additional parodies of covers of original Beatles records were also shown in an attached booklet, garnished with various promotional and press photos from the Beatles' career. The inner sleeve was provided with the lyrics of the songs. The songs themselves had titles that made the role models easily recognizable: “Help!” Had become “Ouch!”, “I Want To Hold Your Hand” had become “Hold My Hand”, “All You Need Is Love”. Love Life ", from" Lucy In The Sky With Diamonds "" Good Times Roll ", others were based on" Martha My Dear "," I Am The Walrus "and" Dear Prudence "- it is essential that the listener of this LP has the Must know the templates.
If you ignore the texts, the disguised voices, the visual trappings, the compositions by Innes remain. They then lose the parody and turn out to be very skilful paraphrases of a number of songs from the Beatles' oeuvre. So skillfully and closely to the templates that ATV, at the time owned the rights to the Beatles songs, sued Innes. He then reached an out-of-court agreement with ATV to give up half of the revenue from the LP and to name Lennon, McCartney and Harrison as authors. [43]
At first glance, of course, ATV's approach seems at least humorless, and also a little disoriented: The Rutles LP could not achieve the distribution of any Beatles LP from the start, it was only on the market for a short time and was not necessarily easy to close at the time get. [44]
This also applied to Utopia's LP “Deface the Music” (1980). The American band Utopia was guitarist and producer Todd Rundgrens' vehicle to capture his musical ideas. Rundgren, the terrible child prodigy of rock music, had released a solo album entitled "Faithful" in 1976, which included cover versions of well-known rock and pop songs that he had recorded and produced. The special thing about »Faithful« was that Rundgren not only recorded the songs as exact copies, but also imitated the respective production, sometimes - for example in the case of »Good Vibrations« by the Beach Boys - so meticulously that the listener, who was not exactly a die-hard fan of the Californian band, did not immediately notice that this recording was not made by the Beach Boys. The cover versions that Rundgren had collected on his album also included two Beatles songs, "Rain" and "Strawberry Fields Forever". The experience with these versions gave Rundgren the idea to fill a complete album with paraphrases to Beatles songs.
"Deface the Music" is not easy to classify. For Rundgren, the focus was less on using songs by the Beatles as a template for more or less funny caricatures - as The Rutles can be assumed - but with the compositional and production-technical means of the time and using the »Beatles kit« quasi »new «Writing Beatles music. It is then astonishing for the listener how much individual elements of the Beatles construction kit have become topoi, which, regardless of who and in what context, are reminiscent of the music of the four Liverpoolers. Rundgren wrote 13 songs for his band with titles like "Life Goes On", "Hoi Polloi", "Feel To Good", "All Smiles" or "Everybody Else Is Wrong", and paraphrases to "Eleanor Rigby", " Penny Lane ”,“ I'm Fixing A Hole ”and“ I Am The Walrus ”respectively. With these songs he proved that Beatles music was more or less easy to imitate, but that the imitations did not necessarily have to be parodies. As a composer and producer, he had strayed so far from the originals with his songs that he could not be accused of plagiarism, but on the other hand he had always taken the significant details of the Beatles' songs into account. As it is also expressed in the cover of the LP: On the one hand, the direct comparison clearly refers to the cover of the LP "With The Beatles" from 1963, on the other hand it is quite far from the original in its design, like that far that the viewer does not necessarily have to feel immediately reminded of the Beatles. [45]
This touches on the fundamentally legal question of what pop music can and must be protected, but what not. Usually a melody as well as the corresponding harmony sequence is regarded as worthy of protection; this shows the origin of music copyright law in art music. In pop music, on the other hand, a harmony sequence is nowhere near as important as it can be in art music.It does not occur to anyone to regard his standard blues with the schematic sequence of 12 bars as so worthy of protection that other musicians can no longer play or even record 12 bar blues without contacting the author - who in this case cannot be determined anyway is - to pay license fees. Various harmony sequences are so common and widespread in rock and pop - as well as in jazz - that they cannot be protected. [46] What was special about the music of the Beatles, however, was that they sometimes also used harmony sequences that were not common in rock and pop music of their time. They also experimented with the form of their songs, deviating from the standardized sequence of verses, chorus and bridge; One of the reasons "She Loves You" had a significant effect was because the song opened with the chorus. [47] The imitation of such a song would inevitably point to the original - and this could lead to copyright problems.
On the other hand, a parody can only work if the peculiarities of the original can at least be taken up, but if possible reinforced. Innes' parodies had to clearly refer to the originals with their goal of wanting to be parody. As a consequence, enforcing copyrights in this area would be tantamount to prohibiting making parodies at all.
In the case of the Beatles compositions, there is another special feature of rock and pop music that plays no role in the drafting of copyright laws: the design of the sound. After "Yesterday" (1965), the Beatles and their producer George Martin experimented with expanding the sound. The usual rock band from before 1965 was stereotypically made up of electric guitars, an electric bass guitar and a drum set, with piano or (electronic) organ being added on a case-by-case basis. After the release of "Yesterday" and the success of the single, any instrumentation, no matter how unusual, was possible as part of a rock song - just like in contemporary pop music. The trumpet interjections in "Penny Lane" (1967) and "Good Morning Good Morning" (1967), for example, are significant. Both appear in Neil Innes 'parodies [48] - albeit in paraphrased form - and make every listener who knows the Beatles' songs think of them immediately - that is also the parodist's intention. The sound design could also be seen as worthy of copyright protection. In rock music, sound design became an essential part of the compositional process with "Pet Sounds" by Brian Wilson and "Revolver" at the latest, which - as far as melodic and harmonic invention is concerned - thus also faded into the background; the copyright in its valid form cannot do justice to this fact. It is no coincidence that Beatles songs in particular from around 1966 to 1969 are imitated, paraphrased and parodied, because the “typical” Beatles sound comes from these few years.
The sound of a "typical" Beatles song of the years mentioned can be described with some precision; one can largely ignore the texture itself, because the rock listener orients himself to the sound image, and it is hardly important to him which formal unusual features such as "Strawberry Fields Forever" or "A Day in The Life" have.
First there is the singing. The Beatles had three extraordinary singers, John Lennon, Paul McCartney and George Harrison, all of whom were equally good at singing solo and in a sentence. Usually a solo voice is in the foreground, but often Lennon and McCartney also sang in duets and it was no coincidence that they reminded of The Everly Brothers. With some regularity, the voices were "enlarged" in volume - more frequently with Lennon, less often with McCartney - by means of double tracking, later automatic double tracking. Occasionally, double tracking was also used for the vocals, so that the three singers could be built into regular choirs on some songs - such as "Back In The U.S.S.R.", later on "Because". This technique was later used by about 10cc ("I'm Not In Love"; 1975, recordings 1974), and made an obligatory stylistic device of their music by Queen ("Bohemian Rhapsody"; 1975, recordings 1975). [49] Often the sentence singing of Lennon, McCartney and Harrison was constructed after the model of the singing of American girl groups. Further manipulations on the vocals concerned the vocal sound itself: By slightly increasing or decreasing the band speed, the voice was made "younger" or "older"; of course, this inevitably went hand in hand with a change in pitch and thus key. [50] And finally, Lennon, McCartney and Harrison occasionally left the narrow framework of sentence singing and used their voices for effects, such as howling glissandi in "Blue Jay Way" and "I Am The Walrus," or mimicked instruments, such as brass instruments in "Lady." Madonna".
The drum sound was also manipulated. Starkey dampened the sound of his drums very much, especially in later years of the Beatles career, eventually even placing tea towels over the batter heads of tom-toms and snare drums, giving him a suppressed, low-overtone and very short, but also typical and very individual sound reached; particularly noticeable, for example, in "Come Together". For example, for "A Day In The Life" the drum recording was played back at a slower speed than it was recorded and incorporated into the overall event so that a deeper and almost monumental sound was achieved; [51] Martin often used reverberation for some sections of the drum part.
The Beatles started out as a guitar band. The only instrument that could produce a sustained tone and was part of the instrumentation of the early Beatles was the occasional harmonica. But from the very beginning of their careers, Lennon and Harrison chose their instruments carefully, although personal preferences and the prestige that some guitars bring with them may have played a role. An overview, as presented by Andy Babiuk, makes it clear how large the number of instruments and amplifiers used was. When it comes to instruments, none of the big names are missing and the instruments made by the American company Rickenbacker made the Beatles so popular. Of course, the bass from the German company Höfner used by McCartney became legendary, but he by no means used it for all recordings. [52]
From 1965, instruments and instrumental ensembles that could produce a lasting sound were used in quick succession: organ (electromechanical and electronic), brass and woodwind instruments (horn, trumpet, saxophones, clarinets, flutes, strings), also in unusual combinations, then the clavioline, the mellotron, and finally the Moog synthesizer. The ever-expanding role played by instruments that could produce a long-lasting tone goes back to the influence of George Martin. He also wrote the characteristic arrangements that have their starting point in his traditional "art-musical" training. There is only one orchestral arrangement that appears on a Beatles LP that he does not produce, namely that of "She’s Leaving Home" (1967); it was written by Mike Leander. [53]
The string arrangement in "Yesterday" already exceeds the limits customary at the time: Martin was not only interested in a "sentimental" sound background, but the entire movement develops over the course of the song; For example, when the first violin detaches itself from the movement and draws the listener's attention with a long tone - that is, it steps out of the role of the background. In "Yesterday" the string quartet is only juxtaposed with McCartney's voice and guitar; in »Eleanor Rigby« the entire line-up was virtually »doubled« compared to »Yesterday«: four violins, two violas, two cellos; McCartney sang the lead, Lennon and Harrison in the sentence. In this case, however, a typical "rock instrument" was completely dispensed with.
As far as strings are concerned, not only »Yesterday« and »Eleanor Rigby« are connoted with the music of the Beatles, especially the songs »Strawberry Fields Forever«, »Blue Jay Way«, »A Day In The Life«, »I Am The Walrus "And" Glass Onion ". In “Strawberry Fields Forever” it is the mixture of the sound of traditional instruments with the ready-made sounds of traditional instruments, the three cellos and four trumpets on the one hand and the mellotron on the other. These instruments, in addition to the usual instruments used by the band, made the song stand out from all other releases of the time; the cast also has no role model in art music. Martin did not let the three cellists follow an ideal of "beautiful sound", but instead had the musicians play in a rough-sounding forte. Also noteworthy in "Strawberry Fields Forever" is Starrs' drumming, which is far from the usual timing of other drummers of the time. Of the Beatles' "local songs" - "Strawberry Fields Forever", "Penny Lane" and "Blue Jay Way" [54] - "Blue Jay Way" is the "most psychedelic". Various sound manipulations such as phasing, double tracking and clips played backwards from previously recorded tapes, as well as a drum sound adapted to the atmosphere of the song, place "Blue Jay Way" in a row with "Tomorrow Never Knows" and "Strawberry Fields Forever". In "I Am The Walrus" the specific stylistic elements of "Strawberry Fields Forever" are taken up again - for example the glissing strings - and quasi "standardized" - from now on they are stylistic devices of rock and pop music in general. All of this is supplemented by an obvious nonsense text, which can nevertheless also be understood as »psychedelic« - all in all, a work created to confuse the listener. Last but not least, it was Lennon's intention to reveal his text in such a way that the attempt at an interpretation would fail - this was already the case for "I Am the Walrus".
"Glass Onion" is the Beatles' own parody, the aforementioned peculiarities of the arrangements are taken to extremes here, and style quotations from "Strawberry Fields Forever", "I Am The Walrus" and "Fool On The Hill" make the song despite it Short of just over two minutes (02:17) to a "blueprint" for subsequent rock bands, which at the same time find in it a justification for their imitations. [55]
That leaves "Strawberry Fields Forever" and "A Day In The Life". Both songs stand - like "Good Vibrations" by the Beach Boys - for the possibility of forming fragments of songs into a whole almost exclusively with the means of studio technology. With “Strawberry Fields Forever” this is less noticeable than with “A Day in The Life”, in which the orchestral parts appear suddenly and are separated from the song parts. In “Strawberry Fields Forever”, on the other hand, it is the contrast between prefabricated sounds and real sounds - here the prefabricated tape sections with flutes, there the real trumpets and cellos. The production techniques used in these two songs became essential for the production of rock and pop music and can still be found today in the songs of a wide variety of musicians and bands. The two musicians themselves provided the blueprint for their compositions, for Beatles songs without Lennon / McCartney

One name is missing so far: The Residents. The mysterious American band had a kind of love-hate relationship with the Beatles from the beginning of their career. The first album, the LP "Meet The Residents" released in 1974, alluded to the LP "Meet The Beatles" from 1964 in the title and the design of the cover. [56] While the cover of "Meet the Residents" could still be seen as a somewhat nasty parody of the cover of the Beatles LP - in fact The Residents had only "reshaped" the original cover with a few additional elements drawn - it had the one on the record contained music has nothing to do with Beatles songs. It is a series of collages ranging in length from little more than a minute to almost ten minutes. The collages consist of noises, scraps of speech, singing and music, from which typical "loops" from rock, jazz and pop music sometimes emerge. Although a total of a dozen song titles are named, the collages merge into one another, so that for the listener the image of a single collage emerges.
In 1977 the residents' reference to the music of the Beatles became more concrete when they released the single "The Beatles Play The Residents And The Residents Play The Beatles". Page one of the single contains a collage with the title "Beyond The Valley Of A Day In The Life", which consists of about 30 particles from songs by Lennon, McCartney and Harrison. These particles are often layered on top of each other: the refrain from “She Loves You” over the riff from “Hey Bulldog”, over the whole again the orchestral glissando from “A Day In The Life” - all of this often only for a few seconds. It is difficult to see this as a "tribute" to the British band, rather it is a nasty deconstruction that turns a number of striking Beatles songs into a repository from which the residents only took the particles they needed the recognition of the quotations - and thus the templates - are necessary: ​​Almost ten years of producing Beatles music reduced to a little more than four minutes. As if that said everything.

[1] Other versions, among others, by: Ringo Starr and the All-Starr Band, X-Pensive Winos, The Rolling Stones (2012), Adam Faith, Count Basie Orchestra, Day Brothers, Suzi Quatro, Sam Phillips and The Stooges
[2] The Beatles recorded only a few of these songs themselves in the early days of their careers, such as "I'll Be On My Way". "Hello Little Girl" is the first song written by John Lennon; according to his agreement with Paul McCartney, the authorship of this song was also given as Lennon / McCartney. ? The Beatles: Anthology 1 (1995)
[3] First The Bonzo Dog Dada Band, then the Bonzo Dog Doo-Dah Band, known as the Bonzo Dog Band; Bonzo Dog is a cartoon character, Dada referred to the artistic direction that emerged at the beginning of the 20th century.
[4] A preliminary form of the later hi-hat: a basin is attached to each of two boards connected by a joint, between which a spring sits. The complete instrument lies with one of the boards on the floor. When stepping on the upper board, the two basins hit against each other; the spring ensures that the pelvis are moved apart again after the kick. This archaic instrument was also called a snow shoe. The inner instrument is of a better design and resembles the foot pedal of a hi-hat. ? http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=w05YIk0Hu2Y (accessed October 27, 2014)
[5] brother of Jane Asher, temporarily friend of Paul McCartney; Asher sang in the duo Peter and Gordon.
[6] The band name Badfinger goes back to the working title of the song "With A Little Help From My Friends", which was "Bad Finger Boogie". ? McCartney's demo was released in 1996 with The Beatles: "Anthology 3".
[7] Doggett, Peter: You Never Give Me Your Money - The Beatles After The Breakup; London 2009; P. 173
[8] In the repertoire of The Iveys there was also a song with »Tube Train« that seems like a parody of popular songs by The Who.
[9] Hewson later wrote the arrangement for McCartney's song "The Long And Winding Road" on Phil Spector's instructions.
[10] For Apple see: McCabe, Peter / Schonfeld, Robert D .: Apple To The Core - The Unmaking of The Beatles; London 1972? O’Dell, Denis (with Bob Neaverson): At The Apple’s Core - The Beatles From The Inside; London 2002? Doggett, Peter: You Never Give Me Your Money - The Beatles After The Breakup; London 2009
If one ignores the fact that Lennon, McCartney and Harrsion (with Stuart Sutcliff and Pete Best) accompanied the British singer Tony Sheridan in concerts and recordings in Hamburg in 1960/61 under the name The Beat Brothers.
[12] A very similar collection of cover versions of Beatles songs is the album "In My Life" by George Martin? George Martin: In My Life (1998)
[13] Neal Morse of Spock’s Beard and Mike Portnoy, at the time still at Dream Theater, founded the formation Yellow Matter Custard in 2003 with guitarist Paul Gilbert and bassist Matt Bissonette, a band in honor of the Beatles? Yellow Matter Custard: One Night In New York City (2003)? One More Night in New York City (2011).
[14] Rudy Rotta: The Beatles in Blues (2008)? Ringo Ska: It's Ringo Ska - A Fine Stereo Recording (2004)? Diverse: Butchering The Beatles (2006)
[15] For example: Beatlemania / Volume 2 (2004; with i.a.Cheap Trick, Grant Lee Phillips, Harry Nilsson, Richie Havens, Steve Cropper)? Revolver Reloaded (July 2006; with, among others, Catfish Heaven, The Handsome Family with the Rivet Gang, Neal Casal, Sukilove, Belarus, Ed Harcourt)? Sgt. Pepper… With A Little Help From His Friends (March 2007; with, among others, Simple Kid, Puerto Muerto, Circulus, Echo & The Bunnymen)? The White Album Recovered 0000001 (September 2008; with, among others, Liz Green, Lau, Big Linda, A Girl Called Eddy)? The White Album Recovered 0000002 (October 2008; with, among others, The Rugby Suns, Eugene McGuinness, Neville Skelly, Paul Welller)? Abbey Road Now! (October 2009; with, among others, The Invisible, Leisure Society, Let's Wrestle, The Low Anthem)
[16] See: Halbscheffel, Bernward: Lexikon Progressive Rock; Leipzig 2013
[17] The arrangement also contains a quote from the aria of the "Goldberg Variations" BWV 988 by J.S. Brook
For a short time Rifkin stayed with pop music: he wrote some arrangements for the albums "In My Life" (1966) and "Wildflowers" (1967) by the American singer Judy Collins.
[19] The 12 Cellists of the Berlin Philharmonic: Beatles in Classic (1983)
[20] For example: Blue Note Plays The Beatles (2004)
[21] Brad Mehldau: The Art Of The Trio, Volume One; 1997 ("Blackbird")? Brad Mehldau Trio: Day Is Done; 2005 ("Martha My Dear", "She’s Leaving Home")? The Finnish pianist Iiro Rantala dedicated his album "My Working Class Hero" exclusively to the compositions of John Lennon; (2015). These songs include some that Lennon wrote during his time as Beatle, such as "Norwegian Wood", "All You Need Is Love", "Help!" And "Because".
[22] Still under the name Walter Carlos? For Carlos see also: Pinch, Trevor / Trocco, Frank: analog Days - The Invention and Impact of the Moog Synthesizer; Cambridge (Massachusetts) / London 2002; P. 131 ff
[23] All: The Beatles: Abbey Road (1969)? See also: http://www.moogmusic.com/news/august-1969-beatles-use-moog-synthesizer-abbey-road-sessions
[24] Krause released two LPs with Paul Beaver: "The Nonesuch Guide To Electronic Music" (1967) and "In A Wild Sanctuary" (1970). As early as 1967 Krause and Beaver had set up a stand at the Monterey Pop Festival and demonstrated their instrument to interested parties. ? See also: Halbscheffel, Bernward: Lexikon Progressive Rock; Leipzig 2013
[25] http://thebeatlescompleteonukulele.com
[26] This should succeed effortlessly by listening to the album "Snoopy’s Beatles", published in 1995 in the series "Snoopy’s Classiks On Toys": Accompanied by a recorder and a small chime, very young children sing a series of Beatles hits; Whether it is actually singing toddlers or acoustically “rejuvenated” adults is not to be decided here.
[27] Mann, William: The Beatles revive hopes of progress in pop music with their gay new LP; The Times, May 29, 1967
[28] Figures of this kind can also be found in the songs of other British bands of the time, such as those of The Who or The Kinks.
[29] At least, according to the words of the sound engineer Geoff Emerick Lennon's opinion on "Ob-La-Di, Ob-La-Da". Nonetheless, Lennon / McCartney were considered and billed as the originator of all these songs - including those for which McCartney was solely responsible. Lennon's resistance consisted of a refusal to actively work on the songs. George Harrison had to reckon with Lennon's ostentatious disinterest. ? Emerick, Geoff (with Howard Massey): Here, There and Everywhere - My Life Recording the Music of The Beatles; New York 2006? For the Lennon / McCartney and McCartney / Lennon problems, see also: Lewisohn, Mark: The Beatles. All These Years Volume I - Tune In; New York 2013; P. 13
Merry & Pippin, for example, parodied only the lyrics of rock and pop songs, including numerous songs by the Beatles; the two lyricists do not include the music. ? http://myweb.westnet.com.au/rkll/zz6parodylistofbeatles.htm
[31] See on "Back in the USSR": Halbscheffel, Bernward: Scrambled Eggs, Hard Disc Recording and Some Fraud - The Creative Process in Rock Music, in: Hanns-Werner Heister, Hans-Joachim Hinrichsen, Arne Langer, Susanne Oschmann: Semantic Islands - Musical Mainland; Between / tones Volume 7; Hamburg 1997; P. 181Ff
[32] Compare: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Back_in_the_U.S.S.R.
[33] Years later, Flo & Eddie, former vocal masters with Frank Zappa, parodied surf rock in concerts in this way - with guitar solos that consisted of a single, constantly repeated note.
[34] This is not intended to deny that Lennon and McCartney went their own way with regard to the form and harmonization of their songs; the listener in the Cavern Club should not have noticed that.
[35] Miles, Barry: The British Invasion - The Music, The Times, The Era; New York / London 2009; P. 8? The British duo Chad & Jeremy (David Stuart Chadwick, Michael Thomas Jeremy Clyde) was particularly successful in the USA until their separation in 1968; in Great Britain the two singers only had a hit with their first single "Yesterday’s Gone".
[36] One will win. The connection to the term "European Economic Community" was of course intentional; the candidates for the quiz came from different European countries. A pre-produced short film with humorous content was shown in each of the shows; Showmaster Hans Joachim Kulenkampff always played the main role. Wendland and Buhlan were pop singers, Berking was the leader of the Hessischer Rundfunk big band.
[37] Walter Ulbricht, chairman of the Central Committee of the SED in the GDR, felt the abbreviation "Yeah, yeah, yeah" to be so central that in a speech (1965) he used it as a substitute for Western rock music to be rejected. The term "beat music" was used for rock music in the GDR even longer than in the Federal Republic of Germany.
[38] The four vultures also refer to the Marx Brothers: at the beginning of their film "Monkey Business" (1931; director: Norman Z. McLeod; German "The Marx Brothers at Sea") the four brothers are each sitting in their own a barrel and sing the song "Sweet Adeline" for a few seconds in the style of a barber shop. As with the four Disney birds, one of the Marx Brothers is blond (Harpo Marx), and Groucho Marx wears wire-rimmed glasses with round glasses like John Lennon decades later.