Who is better Atatuerk or Gandhi
Mahatma Gandhi Photos & Quotes
Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (October 2, 1869 - January 30, 1948) was an Indian activist who was the leader of the Indian independence movement against British rule. Employing nonviolent civil disobedience, Gandhi led India to independence and inspired movements for civil rights and freedom across the world. The honorific Mahātmā (Sanskrit: "high-souled", "venerable") - applied to him first in 1914 in South Africa - is now used worldwide. In India, he is also called Bapu (Gujarati: endearment for father, papa) and Gandhi ji, and known as the Father of the Nation.
Born and raised in a Hindu merchant caste family in coastal Gujarat, India, and trained in law at the Inner Temple, London, Gandhi first employed nonviolent civil disobedience as an expatriate lawyer in South Africa, in the resident Indian community's struggle for civil rights. After his return to India in 1915, he set about organizing peasants, farmers, and urban laborers to protest against excessive land-tax and discrimination. Assuming leadership of the Indian National Congress in 1921, Gandhi led nationwide campaigns for various social causes and for achieving Swaraj or self-rule.
Gandhi led Indians in challenging the British-imposed salt tax with the 400 km (250 mi) Dandi Salt March in 1930, and later in calling for the British to Quit India in 1942. He was imprisoned for many years, upon many occasions, in both South Africa and India. He lived modestly in a self-sufficient residential community and wore the traditional Indian dhoti and shawl, woven with yarn hand-spun on a charkha. He ate simple vegetarian food, and also undertook long fasts as a means of both self-purification and political protest.
Gandhi's vision of an independent India based on religious pluralism, however, was challenged in the early 1940s by a new Muslim nationalism which was demanding a separate Muslim homeland carved out of India. Eventually, in August 1947, Britain granted independence, but the British Indian Empire was partitioned into two dominions, a Hindu-majority India and Muslim-majority Pakistan. As many displaced Hindus, Muslims, and Sikhs made their way to their new lands, religious violence broke out, especially in the Punjab and Bengal. Eschewing the official celebration of independence in Delhi, Gandhi visited the affected areas, attempting to provide solace. In the months following, he undertook several fasts unto death to stop religious violence. The last of these, undertaken on 12 January 1948 when he was 78, also had the indirect goal of pressuring India to pay out some cash assets owed to Pakistan. Some Indians thought Gandhi was too accommodating. Among them was Nathuram Godse, a Hindu nationalist, who assassinated Gandhi on 30 January 1948 by firing three bullets into his chest. Captured along with many of his co-conspirators and collaborators, Godse and his co-conspirator Narayan Apte were tried, convicted and executed while many of their other accomplices were given prison sentences.
Gandhi's birthday, October 2, is commemorated in India as Gandhi Jayanti, a national holiday, and worldwide as the International Day of Nonviolence.
Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (October 2, 1869 - January 30, 1948) was an Indian activist who was the leader of the Indian independence movement against British rule. Gandhi used nonviolent civil disobedience, led India to independence, and inspired movements for civil rights and freedom around the world. The act of honor Mahātmā (Sanskrit: "high-minded", "venerable"), which was first used in South Africa in 1914, is used worldwide today. In India he is also known as Bapu (Gujarati: tenderness for father, papa) and Gandhi ji and as the father of the nation.
Gandhi was born into an Indian coachman family in the Indian coastal state of Gujarat and grew up there. He was trained in London's Inner Temple in Jura and initially dealt with nonviolent civil disobedience as a lawyer abroad who campaigned for civil rights in the Indian Civil War. After returning to India in 1915, he began organizing peasants, peasants, and city workers to protest excessive land tax and discrimination. Gandhi took over the leadership of the Indian National Congress in 1921 and ran nationwide campaigns for various social causes and for achieving Swaraj or self-government.
Gandhi led the Indians to question the salt tax imposed by the British in 1930 with the 400 km long Dandi Salt March, and later when he urged the British to leave India, both South Africa and India. He lived modestly in a self-sufficient flat-sharing community and wore the traditional Indian dhoti and shawl, woven with yarn hand-spun on a charkha. He ate simple vegetarian food and also practiced long fasts as a means of self-purification and political protest.
However, Gandhi's vision of an independent India based on religious pluralism was challenged in the early 1940s by a new Muslim nationalism that demanded a Muslim homeland of its own, carved out of India. Britain finally granted independence in August 1947, but the British Indian Empire was divided into two domains, a Hindu majority in India and a Muslim majority in Pakistan. As many displaced Hindus, Muslims and Sikhs found their way to their new land, religious violence erupted, particularly in Punjab and Bengal. During the official independence celebration in Delhi, Gandhi visited the affected areas and sought consolation. In the months that followed, he committed to death several times to end religious violence. The last of these activities, undertaken on January 12, 1948 when he was 78 years old, had the indirect aim of urging India to pay off some funds owed to Pakistan. Some Indians thought Gandhi was too accommodating. These included Nathuram Godse, a Hindu nationalist who murdered Gandhi on January 30, 1948 by shooting three bullets in his chest. Godse and his co-conspirator Narayan Apte, along with many of his co-conspirators and collaborators, were arrested and tried, sentenced and executed, while many of their accomplices were sentenced to prison terms.
Gandhi's birthday, October 2nd, is celebrated in India as Gandhi Jayanti, a national holiday, and worldwide as International Nonviolence Day.
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