How does personality affect consumer behavior?

Consumer behavior: influences

OLIVEIRA, Felipe Gabriel Barbosa de [1]

OLIVEIRA, Felipe Gabriel Barbosa de. Consumer behavior: the influencing factors. Multidisciplinary core specialist journal of knowledge. Year 1st volume 9th PP. 613-630, October / November 2016 ISSN: 2448-0959


Today globalization has accelerated the movement of people, products, ideas and services, disrupting social and geographical boundaries. The development of technology is a new economy where the old laws are no longer applied, forcing everyone to change the way we behave, like consumers. Shaping a new era in terms of size, speed, and flow direction, the economic shift of wealth that is ongoing today is unprecedented in modern history. This change, I think we saw it coming, but it was quite a shock when it arrived, and in your vacuum there are more surprises in that continuity and the target audience is the entire population around the world. Currently charged and identified with the name of the crisis. So, more and more people want to have a minimum of better state of life and consumption. All of this is in orbit about drive consumer behavior; this encroachment is our focus. We present a study of factors that influence consumer behavior, the method of bibliographic research, choice of authors, with theories in the segment that are most relevant and referenced in the world today. Studying the individual factors, cultural, social, psychological and personal, we can give ourselves to understand what influences and moves consumer behavior.

Keywords: Influence. Behavior. Consumer. Marketing.


Today it is of extreme importance to meet, study and constantly monitor consumer behavior because with this concern, marketers and business managers can identify opportunities and threats to business with the possible dissatisfaction or rejection of their customers.

In the detailed analysis of the individual consumer behavior you can target the best strategies to launch a product, add services, innovate, stand, markets or the best form of attack in the disclosure of a product or service, i.e. with it, regardless of the Relationship makes sense of the work of marketing professionals, with exchanges between companies and customers getting around the needs of both.

To survive we have to innovate, and you must be innovative to the consumer. Hence, companies need to get their competitiveness from the study of consumer behavior still existing.

This article also regulates the factors that influence and disrupt the behavior of consumers, the variables of the individual factors and the likelihood of using the same to motivate, inspire and retain customers, in order to increase profitability in company budgets and to visualize the level of satisfaction among consumers.


The field of consumer behavior emerged in 1960. The aim was to develop marketing strategies that would produce positive results. Was a necessity for businesses to understand consumer buying attitudes and behaviors.

And now more than ever, study consumer behavior when companies learn ways to meet the demands of their customers. However, who is that consumer? Why does he behave in a certain way on certain occasions and differently from others? Why does it remain a mystery to many entrepreneurs and marketing strategists (KARSAKLIAN, 2008). Research and analysis of consumer behavior is understood as the "study of the processes when individuals or a group select, buy, use or offer products, services, ideas or experiences to satisfy wants and needs" (Solomon, 2002, p. 24).

This will help you broaden your understanding of the subject as some of the leading theorists in marketing define the subject.

For Mowen and Moll (2003), consumer behavior is the study of purchasing units and trading processes in the procurement, use and disposal of goods, services, experiences and ideas.

According to Engel, Blackwell and Miniard (2000), consumer behavior includes activities that people engage in when they receive and consume products and services. The study aims to understand the process of choosing between the various existing brands.

According to Kotler (2000) it is to investigate how individuals, groups and organizations select, buy, use and dispose of products to meet their needs and desires.

Karsaklian (2004), notes that the consumer with personality, and because of this, each person identifies and understands the world in different ways (perception), automatically reacts to the context through the senses.

In short, according to Rock and Christensen (1999), to understand the behavioral sciences, consumers and their behavior must lean on the marketer.

Marketing to Kotler (2000), Search basically meet the needs and desires of consumers. However, the author shows that just that is not enough for a company to survive in a competitive market. The challenge is to understand customers and their consumer behavior, namely: know how the purchasing process, develop strategies that influence decisions, through the creation of differentials (Goldstein; Almeida, 2000).

In this context, Kotler and Armstrong (1993) highlight the key factors that influence consumer decision making: Motivation, personality and perceptions:

Motivation- the person needs all the more reason to get their satisfaction, which can be the meeting physiological needs like hunger, cold, thirst and sleep or psychological, appreciation, self-esteem etc.

Personality- There are psychological traits that determine the behavior of the individual at the time of purchase.

Perceptions of the client purposefully interprets the information that will help make the decision at the time of purchase.

In addition to these aspects, we find authors who claim that consumers are influenced by several factors at the time of purchase:

Churchill Junior and Peter (2003), the variables are: social, cultural, situational, personal marketing, among others.

For Engel, Blackwell, and Miniard (2000), these variables would be divided between environmental influences, individual differences, and personal factors.

Schiffman and Kanuk (2000) can influence psychological, personal, social and cultural rights.

When dealing with the current stimuli in the environment, it is necessary to consider the influences. Such evidence can be drawn and to this end we have the following factors which exert influences on consumer behavior.


Culture is one of the most important influences society has on the individual. Boone and Kutrtz (1998, p. 168) defines it as "a set of values, beliefs, preferences and tastes are passed down from one generation to another". And here are contained products and services in the field of material values.

Because that is an essential element in the life of the individual in society, numerous mistakes in marketing have been placed as a direct result of the lack of sensitivity in order not to take into account the cultural reality in which they are placed consumers (Kiefer, CASTRO, SILVA, NANI, 2006).

Let's see what are we talking about the reasons why you prefer a certain product, brand, or another.

And one of the things that influence this decision is to understand that the products satisfy attributes, tangible or intangible, which after its consumption produce some functional or psychological consequences of important values, classified in terminals or instrumentals. But to understand these values, let's look at the definitions of Gastaldello (1999):

Instrumental values ​​are modes of behavior or behavior (half values) such as honesty, responsibility and intelligence. They lead to the terminal values.

Terminal values-finals States exist (terminal values), as freedom and happiness.

The cultural values, the collective beliefs - expressions are the products transmitted through propaganda and advertising. These products in turn end up being consumed by the target group, with the aim of building a positive social identity to meet their need for belonging to a social group.

The more a product or brand increases the image of each Vis à Vis social group, this will be interested in that brand or product. Customers, d. H. Consumers, according to Fisk (2008, p. 37), "looking for brands (and companies, products and people represented by them) that they can trust and braces in a rapidly changing world, confusing and irritating". This is a typical example of consumer behavior based on cultural values; H. Beliefs. Because values ​​have a cultural dimension, they offer individuals the opportunity to be part of a particular society (KARSAKLIAN, 2008).

In a society, the dominant cultural values ​​are "served" by the institutions, laws, family, religion or education that give them formal language mode, tangible and more accessible. That is why learning responsibility primarily for school and family (KARSAKLIAN, 2008).

According to Dubois (1994), the first and most important hurdle you can find in the study of cultural phenomena is the ambiguity that surrounds the concept of culture itself. In a reference work, Kroeber and PhD (1994), two American anthropologists, collected, analyzed and compared 164 attitudes ... Do not resist the temptation to suggest another. Adopt one of these definitions, the most commonly used is Tylor (1994): "Complex, includes knowledge, belief, art, law, moral mores and all other skills and habits acquired by man as a member of a society" (Apud KARSAKLIAN, 2008) .


The influences are exerted by social classes, the comparability between groups of people (Schiffman; Kanuk, 2000).

According to Souza, Farias and Nicoluci (2005), individuals receive direct influence from reference groups in different ways: new behaviors and different lifestyles, influences on self-image and attitudes, and getting pressure to conform to social rules exposed to factors in favor of one Contributing to a preference for a particular service or product.

Well, consumer motivations, perceptions, and attitudes provide a logical starting point, but not enough to explain its behavior. Logical, because purchase decisions are always linked to facts with people. Inadequate because they, above all, explain attitudes and intentions, but not necessarily the behavior that follows (KARSAKLIAN, 2008).

The central concept of sociology different definitions are assigned to the social class. In the broadest sense, a social class is a relatively homogeneous and permanent department of a company in which it is possible to classify individuals or families who share values, lifestyles, interests and consumer behavior (DUSSART, 1983, Apud KARSAKLIAN, 2008).


Purchasing decisions are also influenced by personal factors. These personal slants, such as age, occupation, economic situation, phase of the life cycle, personality and self-image.

Age and stage in the life cycle

Over time, the needs of an individual change and hardly will always be the same. And consumption patterns are shaped according to the life cycle of the family. For Engel, Blackwell and Miniard (2000), there are nine stages in this cycle: 1. Singles - few commitments. 2. Bridal couple-young people without children. 3. Nest full l children under the age of six. 4. Nest full ll children over six years old. 5. Full Nest Lll-Mature Couples with Dependent Children. 6. Empty Nest l - Older couples who work away from home with children. 7. Empty Nest ll-mature retired couples with away-from-home children. 8. Lone survivor who works. 9. Sole survivor. People of the third age currently represent a growing consumer group with purchasing power and a willingness to consume. Solomon (2002) states that as the population ages, your needs change and it is about more autonomy - actively living and seeking independence - and greater connection with your friends and family.

Occupation and economic circumstances

The occupation and the economic circumstances of the people define their purchasing power. According to the purchasing power and the desired status, it is possible to define the requirements for certain products, such as suits for managers and shoes for employees. However, companies also need to make changes in the economy, since, for example, in the midst of an economic crisis, the consumption behavior of the family is reduced, with the removal of everything superfluous and the purchase of products.

The consumption behavior of the individual according to Kotler (2000) is actively influenced by the occupation. Professional groups with common interests have set elements that affect their economic realities and that directly affect the choice of products. As examples of these items we have disposable income, asset ownership or savings, debt capacity, loan terms, among others.

Personality and self-image

We know that everyone has a way of acting, thinking and how. These peculiarities are the personality that makes each person unique. Let's see the ideas of the two authors:

Karsaklian (2004, p. 39) states: "Personality is a reference to an attribute or characteristic of a person that causes some impressions in others".

Gade (1998) defines personality as the internal organization of traits that determine attitudes and the manner in which social roles are played. Each individual creates his or her way of life and to see the world what distinguishes it from animals.

Personality refers to the psychological traits that distinguish people such as self-confidence, domain, autonomy, submission, sociability, etc.

With reference to self-image and personality, Kotler and Keller (2006, p. 193) note that:

[…] When we use the term personality, we mean different psychological characteristics that lead to relatively consistent and continuous reactions in the environment. Personality is usually described in terms of traits such as self-confidence, domain, autonomy, submission, sociability, perseverance, and adaptability. Personality can be a useful variable to analyze consumer behavior, because personality types can be classified accurately and that there are strong correlations between certain personality types and the choice of products and brands.


The style of life encompasses a person's activities, interests, and opinions (Kotler, 2000). For example, it is reflected in how individuals spend their money or time.


In order to meet consumer buying behavior, we need to consider understanding the interference of psychological factors. According to an analysis by Kotler (2000), these factors can be divided into: motivation, perception, learning, beliefs and attitudes. In order to give you a detailed view of consumer behavior it is important to know how this is done.

Motivation as a psychological factor

Karsaklian (2004, p. 23) states that "the basis of the reasons lies in the question of the psychological balance of the individual. The discovery of a need leads the individual to a situation of discomfort". In this regard, Kotler (2000) adds that nothing is important enough for the person to act on these complaints.

It takes focus in these companies. According to Karsaklian (2004, p. 36) the motivation process begins "with the proof of a need". Gade (1998, p. 86), in which "the body is stimulated by internal or external demands that may be physiological or psychological" supports this idea.

To understand this behavior, various approaches about motivation have been developed that marketers can support in their activities. We present some of the most important ones below.

Maslow's theory

We felt several needs, but we want to meet those first, which seems to be the most important.Maslow, quoted by Stephens (2003), states that motivational behavior is a result of internal or external stimuli that act on people. They make them want to, motivate them to satisfy you.

A must for Karsaklian (2004), ends when one is satisfied and the individual need, i.e. the satisfaction of others, is lacking. And when a need does not come from frustration that state has consequences such as nervousness, decline in self-esteem, aggressiveness and insomnia.

The model of learning or the Pavlovian

The learning model - or Pavlovian - had its origins in the studies of the Russian scientist Ivan Pavlov, whose experiment, as can be explained by Kotler (1998), was to put a bell before feeding a dog after several repetitions that the scientist went to to induce salivation of the animal just to ring the bell.

With this simple experiment, Pavlov found that learning is a voluntary process and developed a model in which this occurs depending on the conditioning that the individual is subjected to. This is stimulus-response model that includes aspects such as motivation, stimulation, response and reinforcement. Let's see his conclusions in this regard, as Kotler (1998) exposes:

Motivation - is a strong internal impulse that pushes individual actions, such as hunger, thirst, sleep, sex and anxiety, among others.

Stimulus - is in the environment and in people and determines when, where and why the responses occur.

Answer-is the response to stimuli.

Reinforcement - is the incentive for the repetition of a certain reaction.

This theory shows that it is possible to create a demand for a product or service when the link is strengthened by strong stimuli through motivational suggestions, positive.

The psychoanalytic model or Freudian

The psychoanalytic model, also called Freudian, has its origin in clinical psychology. According to this theory, "the psychological forces that shape people's behavior are basically unaware and a person cannot fully understand their motivations" (Kotler.2000, p. 194), in the context of this approach, Gade (1998) Segmund Freud theories to argue that personality is composed of three psychic forces: the id, the ego, and the superego, which determine the behavior of the individual.

These three forces can be defined as follows:

ID - is the energy source of instinctive drives, the search for joy,

Example: "I would drink all wine cellars". However, when human beings cannot externalize all of what their primitive desires to live in society, the over-me develops.

Over-me-with the role of a judge; it is up to him to internalize the prohibitions and the values ​​of society. Example: "I'm actually not the wine cellar, the better you drink."

Ego- is a system that seeks a balance between the impulses of the id and the prohibitions of the over-ego. Example: "I'm drinking a bottle of wine or maybe half a bottle".

These three forces, as Gade (1998), are also responsible for the feelings of guilt at the time of purchase, which must be worked out by those in charge of marketing strategies.

According to Freud the motivations that dictate people's behavior are basically nothing and no one could thoroughly understand their attitudes. So, all the characteristics of a brand influence the decision, because one of them can stimulate certain emotions and associations.

Freud's theory is explained by Gade (1998) in defining the choice of appeals to be made widely in communication with the consumer. But for Freud's theory to really work, you need to recognize the real consumer you need to motivate to choose a particular product.

Fair value model

When we make an analysis of the value model proposed by Kotler (1998), we must take into account that it is based on the assumption that some people decide to buy, from a company, supplying a good or service whose value is greater than the total cost the production itself is. In this case the product or service includes valuation factors such as the values ​​of the product, the service and the image of the company, among others. For example:

Some consumers would pay more for a particular product or service if it were associated with a social action than environmental protection.

There are still people who would pay more to have a car or a cell phone.

The value, to Porter (1992), refers to the amount the buyer is willing to pay for what a company gives, as added value for the quality of a product, for example.

Perception as a psychological factor

Perception is the way in which we organize, interpret and choose the information received in order to understand what is around us.

Not everyone learns the stimuli received from the environment, but also the relationship between these and the internal conditions of the person. Sheth, Mittal, and Newman (2001), perception is "a process by which a person chooses, organizes, and interprets the information they receive from their surroundings in order to create a meaningful picture of the world".

Consumers, such as Nickels and Holz (1999), become aware of the outside world through their perception of what surrounds them. This process is used for data acquisition, stimuli and sensations through sensory organs: hearing, seeing, smelling, tasting and touching.

The customer perception, as explained by Sheth, Mittal and Newman (2001), is relevant to all aspects of marketing communication. The design of the product, the labeling, packaging, merchandising, advertising, among other aspects and factors influences.

We, consumers, as an indication of Sheth, Mittal and Newman (2001), do not acquire a product or service in itself, but for the benefit or values ​​that it offers. The values ​​in Zeithaml's vision (1988, p. 14, our translation) are the "general consumer evaluation of the usefulness of a product based on perceptions of what is and what is given".

According to the results of the survey by Blessa (2003, p. 29) regarding the perception of consumers "learned", in the following ratio:

1% for the palate; 1.5% by touch; 3.5% from odor; 11% by hearing; 83% by sight.

These results show that companies use a lot of visual media, packaging, brands, and design to talk to consumers, and it is these elements that stand out for them to differentiate themselves from the competition.

Learning like psychological factor

We can say that learning, as Karsaklian (2004, p. 81), represents "a relatively long-lasting behavior change based on experience. It sets based on the outcome of experience, regardless of innate tendencies, and involves changes in attitudes, emotions and behaviors.

As Gade (1998), the majority of human behavior involves learning the use of goods and services.

All of these variables taken together to form individual attributes are the factors that influence buying behavior. Therefore, the study of consumer behavior must analyze these forces in order to identify consumer behavior, identify trends and possible changes in market segments.


A bibliographical research aimed at primary sources, with the aim of collecting data in relevant publications and different authors who theorize on the same topic. Endeavoring to justify the hypotheses.

For bibliographical research, the quoted about HIRSCHE and BERVIAN:

Bibliographic research attempts to explain a problem of theoretical references in the documents published. Can be done separately or as part of descriptive research or experimental. In both cases there is to know and analyze the cultural or scientific contributions of the past on a certain topic, topic or problem (1983, p. 55).

From the start there is a need to update the subject; Consumer behavior, leads us to find answers to the problems formulated, the disorders, the cultural, social, psychological and personal factors. Find other denominations but influences factors that in theory, even though they bring different IDs names, are influenced by four original factors, classified according to the authors chosen for us, under reference analyzes.

Consumer behavior has characterized its theoretical basis as a role model; "A consumer is to be human. As a consumer, to feed, clothe, have fun ... is to live." KARSAKLIAN (2000; p. 11).

Consumer behavior in our research we have achieved remarkable results. Is that they are represented by the disruption of cultural, social factors, psychological and personal. And in the sought-after manner traditional, continuous observation, accompanied and monitored by the factors that influence it. Well, we also know through effective technological aids such as B. Specific intelligence software behaviors that reaps all the trail left by consumers, the history of consumer behavior, registration, when purchasing physically, as well as by means of e-commerce, which every day gained space as the majority trend of modus operandi, on purchases in the near future Has. Yes, nothing escapes from their records. Through an integrated management system, executive panel in real time, all information is now logged on the behavior of the consumer, obtained through these tools and always understand the secret of all this information in order to then find out what to do effectively. Which makes it always valid and updated data collected from our research.


Consumer behavior is fraught with cultural, social factors, psychological and personal, and consumers are constantly influencing their buying habits change. As more organizations understand consumer behavior, more will increase your sales. A consumer can buy, use, and / or dispose of a product, but these functions can also be performed by different people, which in many buying decisions.

Cultural factors fulfills the influence of society on the individual; a set of values, beliefs, preferences and tastes are passed from one generation to another, including products and services in the field of material values. And these dominant cultural values ​​are defined by the institutions, as laws, family, religion or education. Learning responsibility is primarily from school and family. Social factors are the influences of social classes, as a criterion of ordering some indicators, such as occupation and purchasing power, and together with these indicators variables according to personal values, with to influence groups such as family and friends, lifestyle and demographics. Social class we can classify individuals or families who share values, lifestyles, interests and consumer behavior. Personal factors, we saw that their purchasing decisions are influenced by personal factors such as age, occupation, economic situation, stage of the life cycle, personality and self-image. Psychological factors already the consumer when buying behavior takes into account psychological factors and disorders can be divided into: motivation, perception, learning, beliefs and attitudes. All of these variables taken together to form individual attributes are the factors that influence buying behavior.

The study of consumer behavior, first of all, understands the influencing factors in first delicacies. And second, to get involved in the future requires a specific study mainly on relationship strategies, whether physical or virtual, traditionally in e-commerce environments; to see, judge and act for the benefit of both parties benefit with this understanding of complementary. Then, for the elaboration and ripples of trends in this sea of ​​consumer behavior, diversity can win. And here is the opening to that that other scholars add their valuable contributions to the subject so fascinating, which is why all that is consumer behavior. Because everything turns, everything is always different.


EASY, Darci; Marchesini, Fernando R. A; Oliveira, José A. F .; Sá, Luiz Carlos S. Basics of marketinG. 7th Ed. Rio de Janeiro: Editora FGV, 2006.

BLESSA, r. Merchandising at the point of sale. São Paulo: Atlas, 2003.

BOONE, I. E .; KURTZ, d. l. modern marketing. Rio de Janeiro? LTC, 1998.

HIRSCH, Arnaldo l. & BERVIAN, Pedro a. scientificiche methodik: for the use of students. (3) Ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1997.

CHURCHILOR JUNIOR, G. A .; PETER, j. p. marketing: Creating value for customers. São Paulo: Saraiva, 2003.

DUBOIS, B. Die cultural aproach, exploring the diffusion and acceptance of innovation. In: Comprendre le possibility. Paris: Dalloz, 1994. In; KARSAKLIAN, Eliane. Consumer behavior. 2nd ed., 3rd place. Reimp., São Paulo: Atlas, 2008. pp. 101-103, 154 and 157, 212.

DUSSART, Comportement du possibility et c. Strategy Marketing. New York: MacGraw-Hill, 1983. In: KARSAKLIAN, Eliane. Consumer behavior. 2nd ed., 3rd place. Reimp., São Paulo: Atlas, 2008. p. 119.

ENGEL, J. F .; BLACKWELL, R. D .; MINIARD, p. w. consumer behavior. Rio de Janeiro: LTC, 2000.

FISK, ER. The marketing genius. Porto Alegre: Atemed, 2008.

GADE. C. Consumer psychology is the propaganda. São Paulo: EPU, 1998.

GASTALDELLO, A. T. Der Influence of the personal values ​​of Brazilian and Argentine executives in business negotiationsn 99152 f. Dissertation (Master in Business Administration) - Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, 1999.

GOLDSTEIN, M .; ALMEIDA, h. See Critique of Integrative Models of Consumer Behavior. Administration magazineRausp, Paulo, v. 35, n.1, pp. 2-4. / mar. 2000.

KARSAKLIAN, Eliane. Consumer behavior. São Paulo: Atlas, 2000.

KARSAKLIAN und consumer behavior. 2nd ed. São Paulo: Atlas, 2004.

KARSAKLIAN, Eliane. Consumer behavior. 2nd ed., 3rd reimp., São Paulo: Atlas, 2008.

KOTLER, P .; ARMSTRONG, g. Prinzipien of marketing. Rio de Janeiro-Brazil's Hall, 1993.

KOTLER, Philip; KELLER, Kevin Lane. Marketing und administration. 12 ed. New York: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2006.

KOTLER, P.; Marketing management: Analysis, planning, implementation and control. 5th Ed. São Paulo: Atlas, 1998.

Marketing Management: the Thema of the new millennium. São Paulo: Prentice Hall, 2000.

KROEBER, A .; DOCTORAL, c. KCulture: a critical review of the concepts and definitions. In DUBOIS, B. Comprendre le possibility. Paris: Dalloz, 1994. In: KARSAKLIAN, Eliane. Consumer behavior. 2nd ed., 3rd Reimp., São Paulo: Atlas, 2008. P. 154.

LEVITT, T. Marketing myopia. In: the marketing imagination. São Paulo: Atlas, 1985. In: PATEL, Robert M .; CASTRO, William C .; SILVA, Helder H .;

MOWEN, J. C .; MOLL, M. S. Consumer Behavior. São Paulo: Prentice Hall, 2003.

NICKELS, W.G .; WOOD, M. b.: Relationship marketing, quality, value. Rio de Janeiro: LTC, 1999.

Nunes, José Mauro G. Consumer behavior and market research. 3 .. Ed., Rio De Janeiro: Editora FGV, 2006.

PATEL, Robert M .; CASTRO, William C .; SILVA, Helder H .; Nunes, José Mauro G. Consumer behavior and market research. 3 .. Ed., Rio De Janeiro: Editora FGV, 2006.

PORTER, M. Competitive advantage: Create and maintain superior performance. Rio de Janeiro: Campus, 1992.

ROCHA, A .; CRISTENSEN, c. Marketing: Ththeory and practice in Brazil. São Paulo: Atla, 1999.

SCHIFFMAN, I. G .; KANUK, i. i. Consumer behavior. 6 ed. Rio de Janeiro: LTC, 2000.

SHETH, J.N .; MITTAL, B .; NEWMAN, B. i. Client behavior: Going beyond consumer behavior: São Paulo: Atlas, 2001.

SOLOMON, M.R. Consumer Behavior: Buy, own and become. Translation by Lene Belon Ribeiro. 5th Ed. New York: Bookman, 2002.

SHARMA, A.R.C. FARIAS, J.M. P; NICOLUCI, t. c. important factors influencing consumers to visit college night bars in the city of Presidente Prudente. 2005. Monograph (Bachelor's Degree in Business Administration). Faculty of Economics and Administration of the Presidente Prudente. Integrated school "Antonio Eufrasio de Toledo". Presidente Prudente, 2005.

STEPHENS, d. c. (Ed.) - WirMaslow's business magazine. Rio de Janeiro: Thorsons, 2003.

TYLOR, e. Primitive culture. In: DUBOIS, B. Comprendre le possibility. Paris: Dalloz, 1994. In: KARSAKLIAN, Eliane. Consumer behavior.

2nd ed., 3rd Reimp., São Paulo: Atlas, 2008.

ZEITHAML, especially consumer perception of the price.Quality and Valence: the Middle-End Model and the Synthesis of Evidence, Journal of Marketing, Chicago, v. 52, n.3 pp. 2-22 jul. 1988.

[1] Diploma in business administration (UTFPR) and in personnel management (UNUNTER-).