When did Hitler come up with his ideas?



Seizure of power

The history of anti-Semitism

World War II

The system of concentration camps

Auschwitz concentration camp

Dachau concentration camp

Buchenwald concentration camp



The double face of the Third Reich

Strength through Joy


Resistance movements

White Rose

The Red Chapel

The assassination attempt on Hitler


Adolf Hitler

Anne Frank

Oskar Schindler

Aristides Sousa Mendes


More links

Adolf Hitler

German Chancellor (1933-1945) and leader of the NSDAP

Hitler's youth (1889-1918)

Adolf Hitler was born on April 20th, 1889 as the son of a customs officer in Braunau am Inn in Austria. He grew up in Braunau, Passau, Linz and Leonding near Linz. In 1905, two years after his father's death, he dropped out of secondary school without a degree. From 1905 to 1907 he lived in Linz without training or a job with financial support from his mother. in the

The political rise of Hitler
In September 1919 he attended the meeting of the German Workers' Party (DAP). A little later he was accepted and quickly developed into their meeting speaker and propaganda head. In February 1920, the DAP renamed itself National Socialist German Workers' Party (NSDAP) around. From then on Hitler acted as the party's "drummer" and quickly transformed it into his party, the "Hitler Movement". At rallies and mass events, he demagogically agitated against the Treaty of Versailles and the Weimar Republic. This gave his party great popularity. On July 29, 1921 he was elected chairman of the NSDAP and received dictatorial powers. On September 1 and 2, 1923, Hitler and retired General Erich Ludendorff from several right-wing radical groups in Nuremberg founded the German Combat League. With this league, Hitler attempted on November 8, 1923 to gain power in Bavaria and overthrow the Reich government by marching on Berlin. NSDAP, SA and Völkischer Beobachter were banned. During his imprisonment, Hitler wrote the first volume of "Mein Kampf". In this and in the second volume, which was conceived in late 1926, Hitler formulated his central goals and convictions: anti-Bolshevism, radical anti-Semitism and the creation of living space in the East. Even before 1933, "Mein Kampf" had very high print runs. However, the objectives published therein were generally greatly underestimated. On February 26th, 1925 the NSDAP was re-established and Hitler took over the leadership. In the Reichstag elections on September 14, 1930, the NSDAP won 18.2 percent of the vote. Just one day after the election, Hitler declared that one day power would fall to him of its own accord, and that it would be legal. In March 1932, Hitler ran for the presidential election, but was defeated by incumbent Paul von Hindenburg in the first ballot with 30.23 percent of the vote and in the second ballot with 36.68 percent. In the elections to the Reichstag on July 31, 1932, the NSDAP became the strongest parliamentary group with 37.4 percent, not least because of the economic crisis. However, Hitler refused to participate in the government because he wanted to take over the government himself. In the elections of November 6, 1932, the NSDAP lost over four percent, but remained the strongest force. On January 30, 1933, Hitler was appointed Chancellor by the Reich President.

Hitler and the National Socialist Regime
At first only three National Socialists belonged to the new Reich government. In addition to Hitler himself, these were Hermann Göring and Wilhelm Frick. He managed to establish a dictatorship within a short time. The first occasion was the fire in the Reichstag on February 27, 1933: the law for the protection of the people and the Reich, enacted by the Reich President on February 28 at Hitler's instigation, permanently suspended the fundamental rights guaranteed in the Weimar constitution. Already in the night of the 28.2. began a great wave of arrests, the communists, intellectual left, social democrats and anarchists fell victim. With the abolition of the separation of powers, the law to remedy the plight of the people and the Reich of March 24, 1933, the so-called "Enabling Act" created the basis for the development of an authoritarian system of rule geared towards Hitler. After the elimination of the political opposition, Hitler switched off the inner-party opposition in the so-called "Röhm Putsch" on June 30, 1934 when he had Ernst Röhm and other leading SA men murdered in a bloody murder with the help of the SS and Reichswehr. By law of 3.7. the action was subsequently declared lawful as a state emergency. The SA lost its independent status and the SS was directly subordinate to Hitler. After Hindenburg's death, Hitler also became President of the Reich on August 2, 1934 and thus became "Führer and Reich Chancellor". The Wehrmacht was now sworn in on him and no longer on the constitution.

After the Länder, organizations and parties had been brought into line, Hitler concentrated on foreign and racial policy. The Nuremberg Laws of September 15, 1935 discriminated against and persecuted Jews, which escalated for the first time in the Night of the Reichspogrom on November 9, 1938. In foreign policy, Hitler initially aimed at a revision of the Versailles Treaty and thus at restoring Germany's position of power in Europe. His first success in this area was the return of the Saarland to the German Reich after a referendum in January 1935. This was followed by the reintroduction of general conscription in May 1935 and a massive build-up of the Wehrmacht. The military occupation of the demilitarized Rhineland on March 7th, 1936 went unpunished by the victorious powers of the First World War.

In October 1936 the first four-year plan came into force with the aim of ensuring the war-ability of the German army and economy within four years. In 1936, Hitler provided Franco military aid in the Spanish Civil War. At the end of 1936 the Berlin-Rome axis was established between fascist Italy under Benito Mussolini and National Socialist Germany. In front of high Wehrmacht officers on November 5, 1937, Hitler formulated his risk policy and specified his foreign policy plans, all of which were aimed at creating living space in Europe. The first goal should be the annexation of Austria and the overthrow of Czechoslovakia. With this plan, however, Hitler provoked the opposition of the Reich Minister of War Werner von Blomberg and the Commander-in-Chief of the Army Werner von Fritsch. Under constructed circumstances, both were released in early 1938 in the course of the "Blomberg-Fritsch Crisis". In order to extend his power to the Wehrmacht, Hitler himself took over the supreme command as head of the newly created "Oberkommandos der Wehrmacht" (OKW) on February 4th, 1938. The aggressive foreign policy was favored by the appeasement policy of the European powers, above all Great Britain on March 12, 1938 the annexation of Austria and on September 29, 1938 in the Munich Agreement the cession of the Sudetenland to Germany.

When Hitler occupied Bohemia and Moravia on March 15, 1939, in breach of the Munich Agreement, and declared it to be a Reich Protectorate, he had gone over to an imperialist policy of expansion that everyone could see. To secure this, he concluded a military alliance with Mussolini on May 22, 1939, the Steel Pact, and on August 23, 1939, surprisingly, a non-aggression pact with Stalin. The secret additional agreement contained therein divided East Central Europe into a German and a Soviet area of ​​interest. The attack on Poland on September 1, 1939 finally triggered the Second World War, when Hitler declared the creation of "living space" in the east and the "solution of the Jewish question" in Europe. As early as January 31, 1939, Hitler had announced in a Reichstag speech "the annihilation of the Jewish race in Europe" in the context of a world war and in the anti-Semitic propaganda film "The Eternal Jew", which he had strongly influenced.

The 2nd World War
With the successful "Blitzkriegen" against Poland (September 9, 1939), Denmark and Norway (April 9, 1940) as well as the Netherlands, Belgium and France (May 10, 1940) Hitler pulled the German military on his side. In the course of preparing the attack the Soviet Union he issued an OKW directive on March 13, 1941 for the formation of task forces and on June 6, 1941 the so-called "Commissar Order" to deal with the political commissars of the Red Army. Both orders revealed Hitler's goals: the conduct of a racial and ideological war of extermination. The attack on the Soviet Union took place on June 22nd, 1941 without opposition from the military. Einsatzgruppen subordinate to the SS immediately began the systematic extermination of Jews, Sinti and Roma and other racially and politically undesirable people in the occupied territories. When the German advance slowed in late autumn, Hitler himself took over the command of the army on December 19, 1941 and now increasingly determined the individual military operations. After the attack on Pearl Harbor, the USA declared war on Japan on December 8, 1941. Thereupon the German Reich, allied with Japan in the three-power pact since 1940, declared war on the USA on December 11, 1941. With this step, Hitler tried to prevent a defeat of Japan and a concentration of American warfare on Germany in order to defeat the Soviet Union after all. After some successes on the Eastern Front in the spring / summer of 1942, a German defeat began to become more and more apparent from the end of 1942 / beginning of 1943. The defeat at Stalingrad in February 1943 marked the turning point of the Eastern War. Nevertheless, he let the war and his extermination campaign against the Jews continue fanatically. In the course of the failed assassination attempt on July 20, 1944, Hitler had the resistance members brutally murdered with the help of the People's Court. Domestic terror intensified again. Still on March 19, 1945 With the so-called "Nero order" he ordered the destruction of all vital production facilities, since in his opinion the German people had failed and thus forfeited their right to exist. On April 29, 1945, Hitler appointed Admiral Karl Dönitz as his successor and wrote his political will In it he emphasized the need to exterminate European Jews: On April 30, he and his wife Eva Braun committed suicide in the bunker of the Reich Chancellery in Berlin.

Source: Adolf Hitler (http://www.shoa.de/p_adolf_hitler.html) (shortened and changed)

Last picture from http://www.skalman.nu/third-reich/gallery-hitler.htm

Now click here to do exercises on Hitler