How regulated is the French grammar

French grammar

Transcript

1 - 1 - French grammar Part 1: About the language ... 3 Introduction to the grammar part of your language course A brief history of the French language ... 5 Who speaks French? ... 9 The alphabet: pronunciation and spelling ... 13 Part 2 : The article ... 16 The indefinite article ... 16 The definite article ... 17 The partition article and the partitive 'de' ... 18 Part 3: The noun ... 21 The gender ... 21 The plural form The Pluraliatantum ... 24 The Case / Declination ... 25 Part 4: Adjectives and Adverbs ... 26 The Formation of Adjectives ... 26 The Position of Adjectives ... 28 Forms of Adjectives: The Comparative ... 30 Forms of intensification of adjectives: the superlative ... 31 Exceptions in the comparative and superlative formation ... 33 The adverb ... 33 The forms of intensification of adverbs Part 5: Verbs ... 39 Peculiarities / difficulties of the French verb system ... 39 The present tense ... 40 The conjugation of the verbs on -er in the present tense ... 40 Special features within the group of verbs on -er ... 42 The conjugation of the verbs on -re ... 45 The conjugation of the verbs on -ir ... 46 The conjugation of the verbs on -oir ... 47 The auxiliary verbs' avoir '(to have) and' être '(to be) ... 48 The imperative ... 51 The formation of the imparfait ... 52 The past participle ... 53 The passé composé Imparfait and passé composé in comparison ... 57 The past perfect ... 59

2 - 2 - The future tense ... 60 The future tense II ... 63 The conditional I ... 64 The conditional II ... 66 The conditional clauses The subjonctif The passive ... 73 The direct and indirect speech ... 76 Part 6: The Pronoun ... 79 The Personal Pronoun ... 80 Object Pronouns Reflexive Pronouns The Unconnected Personal Pronoun The Adverbial Pronouns ... 84 The Combination of Several Pronouns ... 85 The Object and Adverbial Pronouns in the Imperative ... 86 The Partitive 'en '... 87 The possessive pronoun ... 88 The demonstrative pronoun ... 90 The relative pronoun ... 92 Part 7: Sentence structure ... 99 The negation The sentence structure Transitive verbs and intransitive verbs Indirect and direct objects and their connections to the verb The infinitive additions to the verb The questions Typical French sentence constructions The gérondif The present participle The passé simple Part 8: Useful things The numbers The cardinal numbers The ordinal numbers Pay the time The date Conversational knowledge: Greetings and goodbyes Conversational knowledge: Polite interaction Conversation Knowledge: Booking a Room Conversation Knowledge: Emergency and Illness ... 127

3 - 3 - Conversational Knowledge: Family Relationships ... 128

4 - 4 - Part 1: About the language Introduction to the grammar part of your language course Nice that you have decided on the French course from sprachenlernen24. We are also pleased that you found your way to the grammar chapters of this course so quickly. Before we release you into the wide world of the French language, we would like to briefly explain to you what the goals and limits of this grammar are, how it is structured and what our didactic concept is for this course. Perhaps first something about the just announced didactic concept of this language course: Our concept is that there is no concept. Don't get us wrong: we're not telling you this to disappoint you now and to make you feel like we don't want you to learn anything. The opposite is the case: we want to give you every freedom to learn how you want and need it. For this reason, this language course presents you with a systematically processed grammar. Unlike textbooks, for example, which attach a grammar unit to every story, we want our stories and dialogues to stand alone and for themselves. If you don't want to bother with grammar at all, you can just memorize these sentences and you will succeed and be able to make yourself understood. But if you want to acquire a solid basic knowledge of French, you will find in this grammar all essential phenomena of the French language systematically, comprehensibly and illustrated with many examples. Our grammars aim to bring you closer to the grammar of French from the perspective of Germans for Germans. For this reason, you will keep coming across sentences, how different than in German or from German do you know? We want to sensitize you to facts that are different in French than in German. It is precisely these points that define learning a foreign language: Understanding what exactly is different from what is in your mother tongue. This will also make it easier for you to learn grammar. We deliberately do not write lightly at this point so as not to give you any wrong ideas. We hope that you will quickly find access to the new language and that you will learn and work through the grammar with a lot of fun.

5 - 5 - But now more specifically to this grammar: How is it structured? To make it easier for you to get started, we want to provide you with general information on the French language in the first chapters. Equipped with this little basic knowledge, you will learn the essentials of the pronunciation of French. These chapters are intended to provide the theoretical superstructure for the many audio files that you can listen to on this multimedia CD-ROM. You will then be systematically introduced to the grammar of French. First, you will learn everything about the articles. Then everything about nouns follows as a logical consequence. This chapter is followed by information about the adjectives and the verb system. Immediately afterwards you can deal intensively with the adverbs and pronouns of French. Now that you have dealt intensively with the individual parts of speech, you can then deal with the structure of French sentences. Finally, you will find chapters that prepare everything you need to know about numbers and counting: On the one hand, these are lists of cardinal and ordinal numbers to memorize, but on the other hand, there are also specific applications such as the creation of date and time. At the very end you will find a few compilations that are intended to provide you with a bundle of conversational knowledge: How do I greet someone? How do I book a hotel room? What do I do in an emergency? How do you describe your family and relationships in French? All chapters of this grammar are designed so that you can stand alone and for yourself and are understandable. So you don't have to stick to the order, you can jump from topic to topic and learn what interests you. We tried to make good use of the advantages of hypertext in this grammar. Almost all chapters have links that take you to related chapters. So you can also try clicking your way through the grammar this way. We want to explain the respective grammar phenomena to you with many examples. These examples are chosen so that you can and will actually use them in everyday situations. So we tried to include a lot more additional conversational knowledge in this grammar.

6 - 6 - And now we wish you a lot of fun and success with your learning! Your sprachenlernen24 development team A brief history of the French language In this and the following chapter we would like to give you a range of (we hope of course) interesting and entertaining information about French. This is intended to arouse your desire a little more to learn this influential and at the same time very lively language. French is one of the Romance languages, which in turn represent a branch of the Indo-European language family. The Romance languages ​​all have the spoken Latin, the so-called Vulgar Latin, as their original language. The expansion policy of the Roman Empire not only steadily expanded and consolidated its areas of power and economic activity, no, the occupying power also brought its own language with it, which over the course of time (largely) displaced the languages ​​and dialects that had previously been there. From this spoken vulgar Latin (which should not be confused with the written standard Latin), in the course of the centuries, in turn, the regionally different languages ​​that we find today developed. The Romance languages ​​include French, Italian, Spanish, Portuguese and Romanian. There are also other Romance languages ​​that are spoken by a smaller number of native speakers up to the present day, such as Galician, Catalan, Occitan (common in the south of France and in parts of Spain and Italy), and Rhaeto-Romanic (in parts spoken in Switzerland) or the Sardinian language. During the colonial period (from the end of the 15th century), various Romance languages, above all Spanish, but of course also the French language, were brought into their areas of influence by the respective colonial powers and established there. The Romance languages ​​are thus one of the most widespread languages ​​in the world today and are spoken by around 800 million people, primarily in Europe, parts of Africa, and South and Central America, as their mother or second language. Within this group, Spanish (with its regional expressions) takes the lion's share with around 350 million speakers.

7 - 7 - Now you may wonder why in the last section there was so much talk of the Romance languages ​​when the content of this language course is only the French language. On the one hand, of course, to show you (as you have seen) the worldwide spread of these languages. On the other hand, however, also to remind you of the common roots of these languages. If you can speak French, you will certainly find it easier to learn another Romance language, such as Italian. We deliberately do not talk about easy, the different languages ​​have grown too far apart for that in the last 2000 years and have been exposed to the most varied of influences. However, when you learn another Romance language, you will always notice similarities to French. Just look at the following example: Latin origin The number five in Romance languages ​​French Spanish Italian Portuguese Romanian quinque cinq cinco cinque cinco cinci The content of this language course is of course the French language. For this reason, the focus of this chapter should now be shifted away from other Romance languages ​​and rather towards the history of French. As you already learned in the last section, the French language developed from the spoken (vulgar) Latin. In addition, it has incorporated a large number of expressions from the standard Latin, the written Latin, as well as from the Celtic language, which was spoken in Gaul before the Roman occupation (from 58 BC). From this language, despite the assimilation of the then resident population to Vulgar Latin, mainly words from the field of agriculture (e.g. charrue plow) that are of Celtic origin can be found. The construction of the typical French question phrase (Est-ce que ...?; Literally: Is it that ...?) Goes back to the Celtic language. During the rule of the Franks in the north of what is now France (5th-8th centuries), many expressions (Germanic origin) found their way into the spoken language (e.g. danser dancing). Other languages ​​that left clear traces up to the Middle Ages were (Germanic) Viking languages ​​(e.g. Vague Welle), English (the cardinal points: nord, sud, est, ouest) and Arabic (e.g. cotton).

8 - 8 - The first written evidence of (actually spoken) French date from the 9th century, but the dominant high and written language at that time was still (written) Latin. From the end of the 11th century, the French language became increasingly important for poetry. At this time, however, it was by no means possible to speak of a uniform written language, rather it was written based on the different regional dialects. In 1539, French was finally established as the official and exclusive national language in the Ordennance de Villers-Cotterêts. In the 16th and 17th centuries, the newly founded Académie française also uniformly established the standard of writing and the grammar of French. The task of the Académie was determined to give our language certain rules with the greatest possible care, to make it pure and expressive and to enable it to deal with the arts and sciences. During this time, the (uniform) written French language spread through a large number of written documents throughout France. The works of the classical poets of the 17th century such as Molière or Racine should be mentioned here, for example. During the Enlightenment period (17th / 18th century), with representatives such as Montesquieu, Rousseau or Voltaire, French-language scripts became known far beyond the borders of France and thus strengthened the influence of the French language throughout Europe. From the 17th century, the French language also became the court language of the European nobility. The rise of France to one of the most influential colonial powers in the world, which established the French language in its colonial territories, also fell during this period. For this reason, French is still spoken in a large number of countries around the globe, although most of the earlier colonies are now independent (more on this in the following chapter). Incidentally, the French written language is used uniformly in all francophone countries, i.e. in all of the French-speaking countries. There are no fundamental differences in grammar or vocabulary such as exist between American and British English or European and Brazilian Portuguese.

9 - 9 - The Organization internationale de la Francophonie, to which more than 50 countries belong today, represents the interests of the francophone countries. The tasks of this organization include much more than mere cultural exchange and dialogue or cultural-political measures. Cooperation in agriculture, energy policy, trade, development aid, etc. between the various countries is intended to strengthen their sense of togetherness and solidarity, prevent conflicts, and promote the rule of law and economic growth. On the other hand, a counterbalance to the Anglophone (English-speaking) world is to be built up through this merger. An important influence on the French language are borrowings from English, since the 17th and increasingly since the 19th century in the course of mechanization and internationalization. You will get to know many expressions that are of English origin, such as vote, football, ticket, biftek, hot dog, week-end or computer (Computer). For some time now, however, politicians, cultural workers and the Académie française (which still exists today) have tried to limit the influence of English on French through initiatives, laws and regulations. It is propagated to use French alternatives instead of Anglicisms. For example, it was achieved that instead of the English term, the term courrier électronique (or its short form courriel) is used in France. Just like the language, English-language music on radio and television is also regulated by law in France. Radio stations must maintain a quota of at least 40% of French interpreters. Whether the multitude of legal regulations will produce the desired results (in favor of keeping the French spoken) ultimately depends, of course, on the level of acceptance among the population. One of the things you will notice again and again as you learn French is the difference in the written and spoken language. Most final consonants, such as the plural s, are usually not spoken, even though they appear in the written form. This is explained by the fact that the French orthography (spelling) has historically remained relatively constant, while the oral language has been subject to much greater change. Take a look at an example of this. The following words are all pronounced the same, although their meanings and spelling are different:

10 All these terms are pronounced as [ver] ver vers vert verre worm against green glass This means that in a conversation you have to pay attention to the context in which the word is used, whether the [ver] something green, a glass or called a worm.What do we want to tell you? We do not want to discourage or confuse you, no, we rather want to sensitize you to the peculiarities of the French language. If you know its special characteristics, you will find it easier to learn French and, we hope, it will be a lot more enjoyable. It is precisely these peculiarities that will be referred to again and again in this grammar. Now take a look at the following chapter, where you will find out who speaks French and where it is spoken. Who speaks french As already mentioned in the previous chapter, the group of people who speak French as their mother tongue does not only extend to the national territory of France. No, French is one of the seven world languages ​​(next to Arabic, German, English, Portuguese, Russian and Spanish) and is used next to France and Belgium, especially in their former colonies as an official language, lingua franca or second language. (You will find a list of these countries at the end of this chapter.) What do we mean by that? You will have already recognized it: The French language that you will learn with this language course will be helpful to you in many parts of the world, far beyond the borders of France, and will enable you to communicate smoothly and lively with people from the most varied of origins and regions. But now back to the title of this chapter: Who speaks French?

11 The French language is spoken by almost 80 million people worldwide as their mother tongue (their first language). In addition, there are more than 50 million who use them as their second language. In addition, there is a large number of people who have learned French as a foreign language for some time at school, through language courses or stays abroad and with whom you can communicate or communicate in this language in a rudimentary and sometimes fluent manner. In order to be able to speak French, you don't even have to travel to the big wide world. No, there are certainly people in your circle of acquaintances, in your neighborhood, in your family or among your work colleagues who speak French as their mother tongue or second language. Just think of the list of countries above: In the Federal Republic of Germany alone there are more than French citizens and hundreds of thousands more people who are citizens of French-speaking countries, but of course also a large number of people (naturalized or born or raised here ) Germans who are of French-speaking origin. Instead of talking or greeting each other in German as usual, surprise your Senegalese neighbors, the French mother of your son's playmate, your Moroccan postman or the Algerian husband of your best friend with a bonjour! Ça va? (Good day How are you?). What do you think, what astonished looks you will get when you can suddenly speak fluently and (almost) without an accent in French? Well, if this list contained too many clichés for you, we would like to express one thing: There will certainly be people in your immediate area who speak French as their mother tongue or second language. The French language has also left many traces in German. Just think, for example (without wanting to offend you), of a gourmet restaurant in which you want to order à la carte and suddenly have a déjà-vu because you once had a tête-à-tête in that very establishment Had a table vis-à-vis with a companion. Well, you can think of a whole series of other examples and you think about it ...! .... and another small, albeit quite amusing, piece of knowledge: If you have always wondered why in movies the ship or flight captain in emergencies always Mayday, Mayday! calls into the radio system: With this, of course, he does not want to remind the ground staff of May Day (as the literal translation from English would suggest), but instead uses the international emergency call sign, which is derived from the French expression M`aidez! (Help me!) And became Mayday as a simplified notation.

12 As mentioned at the beginning of this chapter, a list now follows of the countries in which the French language is of particular importance: French is the (or one) official language in the following countries: Belgium, Benin, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Djibuti, Ivory Coast , France, Gabon, Guinea, Haiti, Italy, Cameroon, Canada, the Comoros, Congo, Luxembourg, Madagascar, Mali, Monaco, Niger, Rwanda, Switzerland, Senegal, the Seychelles, Togo, Chad and the Central African Republic. Furthermore, French is a lingua franca in Algeria, Andorra, Lebanon, Morocco, Mauritania, Mauritius and Tunisia. A lingua franca is a language that is used primarily in countries with a large number of different regional languages ​​and dialects in trade, administration, education, everyday life, etc. Is used. In addition, French is the official official and frequently used working language in many international organizations and alliances, for example the United Nations, the OSCE and NATO or the European and African Union. After this brief introduction, we hope to have increased your interest in the French language a little and recommend that you first take a look at the French alphabet and its peculiarities. We wish you every success and friends with learning this grammar! The Alphabet Get to know the French alphabet now. We have put together an overview of the letters here. Where possible, you will find comparable or similar examples of German pronunciation. In Lesson 35 "Babysitting" you will also be taught the alphabet. Most letters are pronounced in the same way as German, but French has accents on vowels that can change the pronunciation. French letter pronunciation Example A, a like the German 'a' mademoiselle (Fräulein) À, à like the German 'a' à (in)

13B. in 'Mörser' sœur (sister) P, p for the German 'p' prince (prince)

14 Q, q like the German 'k' quartier (quarter) R, r like the German 'r', but never rolled rire (laugh) S, s always voiceless soleil (sun) T, t like the German 't' tente (Tent) U, u like the German 'ü', but closed; z. B. in 'Mühle' Û, û like the German 'ü' in 'Mühle' V, v similar to the German 'w' voilà Munich (München) flûte (flute) W, w similar to the German 'w' week-end ( Weekend) X, x like the German 'x' xylophone (xylophone) Y, y like a closed 'i' in 'Riese' Z, z like a voiced 's'; similar to the 's' in 'Rose' lys (lily) zoo (zoo) In the next chapter you will learn more about pronunciation and spelling. Pronunciation and spelling Now that you know the French alphabet, read about the spoken language here. How do you pronounce French? When talking about French, you must not be put off by the general belief that pronunciation is very difficult and that you cannot infer the pronunciation from what is written. It is, however, the case that different letter combinations can result in the same or a similar sound. The letters (combinations) -eau, -o, -au are all (more or less) pronounced like 'o'. rose (rose), landau (pram), beau (beautiful) - The nasals represent another difficulty and specialty of French:

15 There are three nasals, which are represented in the written language as follows: 'en', 'on', 'an' (or also 'em', 'om', 'am') between 'en' and 'an' consists in the languages ​​spoken today no longer make a difference. The pronunciation of the nasals is difficult for the beginner, as there is no equivalent in the German language. It is best to listen to the texts and practice pronunciation by repeating what is spoken to you by native speakers. - It is important to know the following for correct French orthography: The consonants' g 'and' c 'are pronounced differently depending on which vowel follows them: Pronunciation of' G 'and' C 'light vowel (' e ',' i ') dark vowel (' a ',' o ',' u ') g voiced' sch '(le garage) like a German' g '(le garage) c voiceless' s '(le cidre) like a German' k '(le café) For example, to maintain the pronunciation of a verb across all persons, it is sometimes necessary to insert an' e '. voyager nous voyageons travel we travel The 'e' does not belong to the ending or the conjugation, it is only necessary in the typeface of the word so that the 'g' is pronounced as a voiced 'sh' as ​​in other people. - A note on accents: There are three types of accents, which are used with the vowels 'a', 'e', ​​'i'. 'o' and 'u' can occur. accent aigu: é accent grave: è accent circonflexe: ê

16 The accents determine the pronunciation of the vowel 'e' in particular (see the alphabet). The accent circonflexe owes its existence mainly to the history of language. It is often used when the original Latin or Old French word contained an 's' after the vowel, which is then omitted. Such as B. in la fenêtre (the window / fenestra). When a French word that ends in a consonant meets a word that begins with a vowel, you have to make a so-called liaison when speaking. This mainly applies to words that end in 's'. The 's' is then pronounced voiced e.g. E.g. 's' is pronounced: les arbres (the trees) 's' is not spoken: les meubles (the furniture), on the other hand, if two vowels meet at the end of one word and at the beginning of the other word, it becomes the final vowel of the first Word apostrophized. This almost always applies even if the second word begins with an 'h'. z. For example: wrong: * le hôtel correct: l'hôtel (the hotel) Exception: In the case of a small group of words whose initial consonant is an 'h', the 'h' is treated like any other consonant. However, these words are exceptional. Le héros * le hibou the hero the owl * But: l'heroine (the heroine) In the next chapter we explain everything important about the indefinite and definite article in French.

17 Part 2: The Article First, in the following sections we will explain to you how the indefinite and finally how the definite article is used in the French language. We have always given a number of examples to make learning easier for you. The indefinite article The indefinite article (in German ein / ein / ein) is chosen when the matter or the object to be discussed is unknown or when a matter is introduced for the first time in a conversation. As in German, there is also an indefinite article in French. This exists exclusively in the male and female form. There is no neuter in French. Since there are no cases, the article is not declined either, but only has one form. Singular French German Male un a female une a plural French German Male des (-) Female des (-) For the German speaker, it is important to get used to the fact that in French the indefinite article must be in the plural when the noun is in the plural stands. In German there is no plural of the indefinite article. Un oiseau chante dans le jardin. Le ballon d'un enfant est sur la route. Des mères sont devant l école. Des pères attendent leurs enfants. A bird is singing in the garden. A child's ball lies on the street. Mothers stand in front of the school. Fathers are waiting for their children.

18 Now look at how that particular article is used. The definite article The definite article (in German der / die / das) is chosen if one already knows the matter or the object to be discussed or if a subject has already been mentioned in the conversation. The definite article exists in French only in the masculine and in the feminine form. It is not declined like we do in German because French does not have a case system. If the definite article singular comes before a word that begins with a vowel or an 'h', the article is shortened to 1 (l'hôtel (the hotel), l'arbre (the tree)). As an exception, note that there are some words in which the 'h' is counted as a consonant (see also the section on pronunciation), even if it is not pronounced. In these cases the article remains in its normal form (la haine, the hate). Singular French German male le / l 'the female la / l' the plural French German male les the female les the country names require the specific article in French. The majority of the country names are female, male country names are the exception. The rule here is: Country names that end in a consonant or a vowel other than 'e' are masculine (le Brésil, le Danemark, le Portugal, le Japon, le Canada). If the preposition à is used in connection with a noun that carries a certain article (see sentence structure, intransitive verbs, indirect objects), new words result.

19 À + specific article Article le la l 'les combined with à au à la à l' aux La lune brille à travers la fenêtre. L'Inde est un beau pays. Le pain se trouve sur la table. Les grenouilles sont au bord de la mare. The moon shines through the window India is a beautiful country. The bread is on the table. The frogs are sitting by the pond. In order to use the French articles, it is necessary to know some specifics. Take a look at the following section, which covers the article of division and the partitive de. The dividing article and the partitive 'de' This grammatical phenomenon in the French language often leads to difficulties in using the indefinite or definite article in combination with the preposition de. One has to distinguish clearly between a partitive de and the article of division (partitive). The partitive de consists only of the word de, the partitive, on the other hand, is made up of de and the article, or forms a new article. The partitive or article of division is used when it comes to uncountable things (e.g. milk, cheese, meat), which also includes abstract terms (news, ability, power, love). In general, if something is in pieces or is meant to be part of many, the normal article is used. If, on the other hand, something is available in a diffuse quantity or in non-decomposable units, the article must have its partitive function. The forms of the article are as follows: Dividing article (partitive) article le la l 'les

20 division article (partitive) combined with de du de la de l 'des, i.e. when the preposition de meets the article le, the new word du is formed. The example looks like this: EXAMPLE Je bois du lait. I drink milk. 'Milk' is one of those terms that denote innumerable quantities. In the statement 'I drink milk.' it is not clear how much milk I drink, but rather I drink some of the indefinite amount of milk that is available. EXAMPLE Depending on the amount of fries. I eat apples. On the other hand, when I eat apples, I imagine that I am eating a limited number of apples that are in front of me as individual fruits. That is why the indefinite article is in the plural here. A partial de comes after negations when a so-called zero set is referred to. Take a look at an example of the difference between partitive de and definite article. partitives de: EXAMPLE Je ne mange pas de pommes. I don't eat apples. meant: Today I don't eat apples because I ate so many yesterday. specific article: EXAMPLE Je ne mange pas les pommes. I don't eat apples. meant: I never eat apples because I don't like them or because I am allergic to them. This is a general statement.

21 There are also a number of quantities that require the partitive de. You will find a selection of such quantities in the following table: Quantity expressions with parting article Quantity expression example German translation un nombre de un (certain) nombre d'expressions a (certain) number of expressions un groupe de un groupe de danseurs a group (of) dancers ( n) un million de un million de membres a million members un kilo de un kilo de viande a kilo of meat beaucoup de but: bien de + article beaucoup de personnes âgées bien des personnes âgées many older people many older people peu de peu de chance little Luck assez de assez d'expérience enough / sufficient experience trop de trop de soleil too much sun Donnez-moi un kilo de bananes s'il vous plaît. Here j'ai eu trop de soleil. Nous pouvons manger du fromage et boire du vin rouge. Elle n'achète pas de poivrons parce qu'elle ne les aime pas. Will you give me a kilo of bananas? I got too much sun yesterday. We can eat cheese and drink red wine. She doesn't buy peppers because she doesn't like them.Below you will find an overview in which the individual chapters on nouns in French are briefly presented.

22 Part 3: The Noun The most important things you should know about nouns in the French language have been compiled for you in the following chapters. Here you will find everything about the two genders that distinguish French, the most important information about the plural formation of nouns, the so-called pluraliatum (nouns that only occur in the plural) and the cases and the declension. In each of these chapters you will find a number of specific examples to illustrate what you have learned. The individual chapters above are marked as links and can be conveniently clicked on by you if you are particularly interested in a particular topic. You can of course also learn the individual chapters step by step and stick to the order as you can see them in the left column (in the outline). Gender One cannot assume that nouns that are feminine in German are also feminine in French. There are also no rules according to which the gender of nouns can be clearly determined. You can still memorize a few specific endings that will make learning the gender of the respective noun easier. In principle, it can be said that nouns ending with the vowel 'e' at the end of a word are feminine. Exceptions to this are the endings -isme, -age and -ège. Over time, you will get a feel for which endings indicate which gender of the noun, although this cannot always be relied on as there are exceptions. Gender female / male l'arrivée the arrival le vent the wind la moitié half le courrier the mail (letters) la santé the health le travail the work la maladie the disease le citron the lemon la décision the decision le mouchoir the handkerchief la jeunesse the youth le tourisme the tourism la baguette the baguette l'aspirateur the vacuum cleaner

23 la marchandise the goods le fromage the cheese la solitude the loneliness le Néerlandais the Dutch la salade the salad le privilège the privilege There is also the possibility that a noun can become feminine or masculine through different endings. Such endings are: Gender-dependent noun endings male ending -eur -er -teur female ending -euse ère -trice -e -esse -i -ie -e -ée -in -ien -ais -ine -ienne -aise gender male / female un ouvrier une ouvrière worker un Américain une Américaine American un cousin une cousin cousin un acteur une actrice actor un vendeur une vendeuse salesman There are also exceptions here. In the past, the following nouns only existed in the masculine form. This group mainly included job titles that were traditionally reserved for men in the past. Since changes in society also affect language, the feminine form of these nouns has also been used since 2005. However, only the article changes with these nouns.

24 for nouns that only change their form in the article un (une) écrivain un (une) auteur un (une) assassin un (une) ministre un (une) peintre writer, author, murderer, minister ( in) Painter L'auteur du livre est aujourd hui en visite. The tourism is most important for the region. The author of the book is visiting today. Tourism is very important for the region. Now read how the plural formation takes place in French. The formation of the plural In the following you will get an overview of the formation of the plural in French. Most of the nouns follow the regular formation and have an 's' for the plural at the end of the word. However, this is not spoken, only written. Les supermarchés sont fermés. Les voitures tournent à gauche. The supermarkets are closed. The cars turn left. But there are also other forms of formation, which can be different depending on the end of the word, with some changes in the word ending itself. Ending in -al, plural in -aux ending in au, -eau or -eu plural in -x There are also some words that require a different pronunciation in the plural than in the singular.

25These words are called pluraliatum. The pluraliatum In French, as in German, there are so-called pluraliatum. These are nouns that are ONLY used in the plural. Examples in German are "die Anden" or "die Guts". Here is a list of some of the pluralities of French: Pluraliatums of French French les toilettes les échecs German the toilet chess

26 les épinards les dégâts les environs the spinach the damage the environment Les dégâts de la maison sont énormes. Beaucoup de gens aiment jouer aux échecs. J'aime (manger) les épinards. The damage to the house is enormous. Lots of people play chess. I like to eat spinach. Now you will learn the main difference in the cases and declension of nouns between French and German. The case / the declination French has no cases in nouns, i.e. none of the nouns in French are declined. The case in which a noun has to appear in the German translation of a French sentence must be recognized from the context. In French, however, it is still marked which function the respective noun has in the sentence. This works through the system of direct and indirect objects as well as a genitive complement and is expressed through prepositions. More on this in the section on sentence structure and verbs. Le pianiste joue du piano. The passagers de la Compagnie aérienne montent dans l'avion. The pianist plays the piano. The airline's passengers board the plane. In the following section you will find an overview with references to the individual chapters on the French adjectives.

27 Part 4: Adjectives and Adverbs Adjectives (characteristic or epithets) are used to define an abstract or concrete thing, a characteristic, a relationship or a characteristic. We would like to explain this to you using an example. After the respective example, you will always find the link to the corresponding chapter in brackets. Starting sentence: This is a tree. (Not determined in more detail by an adjective) The noun is defined more precisely with the addition of an adjective: This is a tall tree. (You will find the two chapters on the formation and position of adjectives in this grammar.) With comparative (1st increment of the adjective): This is a higher tree (than the one next to it). (Read the section on the comparative.) With superlative (2nd increment of the adjective): This is the tallest tree (in the whole forest). (See the chapter on the superlative.) The formation of adjectives An adjective describes an object and assigns properties or characteristics to it. In French there is a feminine and a masculine form of the adjectives in the singular as well as in the plural. In general, an 'e' is added to the male form to form the female form. Of course, this is not the case if the respective adjective already ends in 'e'. Feminine form of the adjective: masculine form + 'e' The plural formation of the adjectives is analogous to the plural formation of the nouns. joli (pretty) singular plural

28 male joli male jolis female jolie female jolies singular nouveau (new) plural male nouveau male nouveaux female nouvelle female nouvelles The formation of the feminine form based on the masculine is based on the schemes that also occur with nouns. That is why the rule of thumb above does not always apply. Female adjectives can also have special endings. It is advisable to always learn the feminine form at the same time. It is best to memorize the pronunciation as well, as it can change when you change the typeface. This is especially true for adjectives that end in a nasal sound (e.g. prochain, prochaine). Adjectives male female German translation prochain prochaine next, next bon bonne gut juif juive jewish, jewish étranger étrangère foreign / strange beau / bel (before vowel) belle beautiful, beautiful curieux curieuse curious / strange vieux / vieil (before vowel) vieille old La couleur bleue est très belle. La femme a été très gentille au téléphone. L'homme a été très gentil. The blue color is very nice. The woman was very friendly on the phone. The man was very kind.

29 Now look at the position of adjectives in French. The position of the adjectives The adjective is used in two different ways in the sentence, predicative or attributive. 1. Predicative use of the adjective: noun + verb + adjective The verb and the adjective together form the verb group in this case. The house is beautiful. 2. Attributive use of the adjective: adjective + noun As a more detailed description of a noun in a sentence. The beautiful house belongs to my colleague. For French, this distinction is initially insignificant, as the adjectives in both cases adapt to the noun they refer to in terms of gender and number. However, it is useful for understanding the difference between adjectives and adverbs. In most cases (attributively used) adjectives come AFTER their reference word. Position in the sentence: noun + adjective (followed by) Exceptions to this rule are a small group of adjectives: preceding adjectives petit, grand, large, small, large, thick une petite femme (a small woman) vieux, jeune old, young un vieil arbre (an old tree) mauvais, bon bad, gut une mauvaise situation (a bad situation) long, court, bref lang, short, short une longue discussion (a long discussion / a long conversation)

30 beau, joli, vilain beautiful, pretty, bad / ugly un bel arbre (a beautiful tree) Notes: 1. The position of the adjectives can also make a difference in meaning. The following generally applies: after: concrete meaning put in front: figurative meaning For example: differences in the meanings of adjectives concrete meaning figurative meaning translation large meaning grand alone lonely seul new novel nouveau holy cursed sacré 2. If several adjectives meet, they are simply before or after the noun lined up one behind the other and connected with et (and). 3. If an adjective refers to several nouns whose gender is different, the adjective is used in the masculine form plural. Le mois dernier j'ai beaucoup travaillé. Les progrès de la mauvaise danseuse sont très importants. Les filles et les garçons assidus seront récompensés par l école. Les hommes grands ne rentrent pas dans les petites voitures. Les grands auteurs sont rares. I worked a lot last month. The progress of the bad dancer is remarkable. Hardworking girls and boys are rewarded at school. Big men don't fit in small cars. Great writers are rare. Would you now like to know how the adjectives are increased? To do this, take a look at the following chapter.

31 Forms of intensification of adjectives: The comparative The comparative is a form of intensification of the adjective. It can be used to express a comparison between two objects, in the course of which a different quality is ascribed to the first object than to the second. Comparative: aussi (as well) / plus (more) / moins (less) + adjective A distinction is made between the comparative of equality (I am as tall as you), the comparative of superiority (I am taller than you) and the comparative of inferiority ( I'm less tall / shorter than you) A sentence like: I'm smaller than my sister. In French it would mean: EXAMPLE Je suis moins grande que ma sœur. I am 'less tall' than my sister. or EXAMPLE Je suis plus petite que ma sœur. I am 'more small' than my sister. This means that in French the comparative of inferiority (less large) can be used, where in German the comparative of superiority (smaller) is. Positive vieux, vieille, vieil (old) timide (shy) comparative plus vieux / moins vieux / aussi vieux que (older, younger, just as old as) plus timide / moins timide / aussi timide que (more shy, less shy, just as shy as )