What are the consequences of job satisfaction
Job satisfaction: definition, factors, tips
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The Job satisfaction represents an elementary basis of what ultimately drives a company. Motivated employees are less likely to get sick, are more involved and contribute to a positive working atmosphere. This is becoming more important, especially against the background that there is a shortage of qualified employees in a number of industries due to demographic changes. Which factors play a role in employee satisfaction and what is behind them ...
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Job satisfaction Definition: Complicated definition
In organizational psychology, job satisfaction describes the emotional, positive attitude a person has towards their work. On the other hand, job dissatisfaction is understood to mean a person's negative attitude.
How someone arrives at their attitude depends on their expectations, but also on their experience in the specific work situation. It is understandable that an employee with particularly high expectations is quickly disappointed in the event of bad experiences.
Bad experience means that these expectations are not or after subjective assessment could not be realized enough. This is also one of the problems with the definition of the term. Management studies in particular deal with such questions:
How can Measure job satisfaction? And does it come about (in the positive case) because someone actually enjoys their work or is it more indirect because someone has scaled down their own demands?
Some scientists are of the opinion that the term becomes more and more vague the closer it is to be defined. Sometimes, instead of job satisfaction, there is talk of a working atmosphere. This usage does not seem appropriate here, because job satisfaction is to be understood in the following as the individual attitude of a single person.
The working atmosphere, on the other hand, is more related to the Totality of all individual "working moods" the employee, that is to say: If the majority of employees are highly satisfied with their work, this has a positive effect on the working atmosphere and vice versa.
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Job satisfaction theories: The Bruggemann model
At first glance everything seems clear: job satisfaction - of course, that is satisfaction with or at work. The only question that arises is: When is someone satisfied? Or dissatisfied? It is obviously not that simple; it is thanks to the work psychologist Agnes Bruggemann that the term is used Job satisfaction differentiated more precisely to have.
According to the Bruggemann model, between six qualitatively different forms differentiated. In these, the individual needs and expectations contrast with the actual possibilities for realization. Depending on how this target / actual comparison turns out, job satisfaction or job dissatisfaction can be derived from it:
Progressive job satisfaction
Is given if the target / actual comparison is positive. This increases the level of aspiration.
Stabilized job satisfaction
The target / actual comparison is positive here and the level of aspiration remains unchanged.
Resigned job satisfaction
Occurs when the target / actual comparison is negative. In order to achieve a balance, the level of aspiration is lowered.
Pseudo job satisfaction
The target / actual comparison turns out negative. The level of aspiration remains unchanged, but the employee perceives the situation in a falsified (embellished) way.
Fixed job dissatisfaction
The target / actual comparison is negative and the level of aspiration remains unchanged. The employee simply accepts the situation.
Constructive job dissatisfaction
The target / actual comparison is negative and the level of aspiration remains unchanged. The employee recognizes the discrepancy and takes action - for example by changing jobs or further training.
Importance of high employee satisfaction
The Gallup Engagement Index, which is presented annually, is a guarantee of insights into job satisfaction. If you believe the numbers, two thirds of all employees in Germany work according to regulations.
Of course, no employer can be happy about that. Not only that they are usually convinced of what they are doing and want their employees to do the same. Also explained plausibly by the Gallup Index, a lack of commitment leads to considerable loss of sales.
To make it clear: the German economy loses up to 105 billion euros annually. But a high job dissatisfaction have corresponding consequences:
Those who are dissatisfied are less involved. He sees no sense in his actions or has had the experience that all suggestions are rejected and he cannot influence his work or work environment anyway. This can go so far that someone refuses to support out of disappointment and thus tends to damage the employer.
Dissatisfied employees are more likely to be ill. Anyone who has the impression that they are doing a pointless job is more likely to experience stress. Constant stress, in turn, affects the immune system. Employees who do not feel valued and possibly marginalized are also more likely to develop depression.
With the increased incidence of illness, absenteeism also increases, which has a financial impact on the company. Longer absenteeism can also have a negative impact on employee job satisfaction. For example, by significantly reducing contact with colleagues - perhaps a ray of hope until then - and by no longer experiencing certain developments and constellations.
Great job dissatisfaction has a lasting effect on the composition of teams and the working atmosphere: Employees are quitting more often, new colleagues are less likely to fit in or leave the company during their probationary period. This destroys old friendship ties and encourages dissatisfaction.
For many people, work is a central area in their life. Even those who do not fully define themselves through their job: Most people work to make a living, so the job is automatically an important part of their life. Those who only long for the end of the day for eight hours a day do not have a particularly high quality of life for eight hours.
Various factors influence job satisfaction
On the one hand, it is clear that work is not there to be fun for someone. Of course, that doesn't mean that employees shouldn't look for a job they enjoy. But it is not the end in itself of work.
Many scientists have already grappled with the question of what it takes to make it fun. Well-known works on this come from Abraham Maslow, who developed the hierarchy of needs named after him. The model of Maslow's hierarchy of needs shows that self-realization and recognition are typically human desires.
Also of great importance is that Two factor theory by Frederick Herzberg, an American industrial psychologist. In his work satisfaction studies, he assumed that there are two types of influencing factors:
Herzberg refers to this as dissatisfiers or dissatisfaction factors. These include:
- working conditions
- Personal relationships
- Corporate policy
Herzberg classifies the following as satisfiers:
- Work assignments
- Promotion opportunities
- Performance success
- Assumption of responsibility
The hygiene factors are often taken for granted; only their absence is noticed and causes corresponding job dissatisfaction. How strong it is depends on how many hygiene factors are in the wrong and how strongly an employee evaluates the respective factors.
With a start-up, you will be more likely to accept initial chaos and rather provisional equipment if others do important influencing factors are correct - For example, the human interaction, the pay and the tasks. Conversely, the salary will take a backseat if the personnel management and working conditions are generally catastrophic.
Motivation factors can therefore be hygiene factors only compensate to a limited extent. The ideal situation would, of course, be if both factors were roughly equally well developed. If an employee feels a high level of job satisfaction, this means that ...
- there are challenging work tasks that seem interesting and demanding, but not overwhelming.
- The workplace is equipped with all the necessary equipment, materials and furniture in such a way that the employee has the necessary framework conditions to do his work in the best possible way.
- there is a climate in which employees' self-confidence, personal responsibility and initiative are encouraged.
- collegial relationships and helpfulness between the employees are a matter of course.
- the employee from time to time has a sense of achievement that confirms his work.
- the knowledge acquired can be applied and new skills can be acquired.
- the supervisor aligns his leadership style with the employees.
- Appropriate remuneration is granted, which is reflected in the salary as well as in pecuniary benefits.
- the employee does not have to worry about being fired in the near future or losing their job due to bankruptcy.
Tips for greater satisfaction
Ultimately, considerations about job satisfaction are about two things: How can I, as an employer, use the available resources in such a way that everyone benefits? How can I promote employee loyalty? Studies on this repeatedly come to the conclusion that Appreciation and recognition play a major role.
One form of appreciation is clearly the salary. If that turns out to be too measly, the wellness vouchers for Christmas will not be enough. There are various measures that motivate employees more and thus contribute to higher job satisfaction:
Some bosses practice micromanagement. For the employee, of course, this is a sign that his boss doesn't trust him or: doesn't trust him. Recognition also means taking the employee's competence seriously. This can be done by giving him the freedom to make decisions. In this way he can prove his competence and increase his self-esteem.
Employees with children in particular often face the problem of being able to combine work and family with difficulty. One reason are opening times and prices for daycare centers and kindergartens. Employers who offer their employees flexible working hours take this into account.
Speaking of daycare and flexibility: A company kindergarten or daycare allowances for parents are an excellent opportunity to increase job satisfaction. And a great motivator that doesn't fizzle out as easily as, for example, the money with a raise in salary. Fuel vouchers for commuters should also be welcome.
One way to promote employee health is through paid fitness classes. A healthy mind lives in a healthy body: This is how employers kill two birds with one stone, because exercise strengthens the immune system and lifts the mood. And / or you provide your employees with low-calorie beverages, healthy snacks and fruit while they work.
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