Why is heliocentric still a theory

Big Bang 8, school book

4 RG 8.1 / G 8.1 Competence Area Relativity Theory Worldviews before 1905 38 A LBERT E INSTEIN is the best-known physicist and even has the status of a pop star. The following chapters deal with his special theory of relativity (SRT). After its publication in 1905, it caused an enormous amount of dust and drastically changed the physical worldview. The special theory of relativity is one of the great theories of the 20th century. The great thing about it is that you can derive all absurd effects such as time expansion or space shrinkage through logical thinking from simple basic assumptions. So that you can understand why the SRT triggered a scientific revolution, let's take a look at the worldview before 1905. In this warm-up chapter you will hear things that are of great importance for understanding the special theory of relativity. Fig. 38.1: Einstein at the age of 68 (1947) 38.1 And yet it moves! The Copernican Turn In this section we look at the development of the worldview from antiquity to the 17th century in a timelap fashion. This shows very clearly how theories and models are continually improved through new knowledge. ?: Question box around 340 BC A RISTOTELES consolidated the idea of ​​the universe at that time, in which the earth was at the center of the universe. One speaks therefore of the geocentric view of the world (Gr. Geo = earth). Aristotle imagined that the earth is surrounded by “celestial spheres” made of a transparent and light material, the ether (see also Chapter 38.3). To a certain extent planets and stars should be glued to these spheres. They should form perfect spheres and move around the earth on perfect circular orbits. The geocentric view of the world essentially lasted until the end of the 15th century, that is for almost 1900 years! Because it is based on the view that the earth and thus also humans are at the center of the universe, it was vehemently supported by the church (F2). Around the year 1509, NICOLAUS K OPERNICUS hypothesized that the sun is the center of the universe. This is called a heliocentric view of the world (Greek helios = sun). The new view of the world was very practical because it could, for example, elegantly explain the strange movements of Mars in the sky (Fig. 38.2 F4). Fig. 38.2: The peculiar movements of Mars can be elegantly explained in the heliocentric view of the world by superimposing earth and Mars movements. Copernicus justified the apparent rotation of the stars (Fig. 38.5) with the rotation of the earth. He knew the risk of a publication, because he basically degraded the earth to The Greek E RATOSTHENES calculated as early as 250 BC. The size of the globe. How did he do it? Read in chap. 12.1, "Big Bang 6". Why did the Church support the geocentric worldview so vehemently? G ALILEI discovered with his telescope evidence that the moon cannot be a perfect sphere. Which? And what did he discover in the sky that is still named after him today? How can one explain the strange curvilinear orbits of some planets in the sky (Fig. 38.3)? Fig. 38.3: Why does Mars make such strange loops in the sky? You know the story of N EWTON and the apple (Fig. 38.4). What's the whole point of this story? Fig. 38.4: S IR I SAAC N EWTON (1643–1727) What does the Copernican turn mean? How did Kepler determine the orbits of the planets and what are his laws? Read in chap. 9.3, "Big Bang 5". F1 W1 F2 S2 F3 W2 F4 E2 F5 S1 F6 W1 7429un For testing purposes only W - Property of publisher öbv

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