What was Malcom X fighting for

Martin Luther King and Malcolm X

Table of Contents

1 Introduction

2) Civil Rights Developments until 1955 - Awakening Afro-American Self-Awareness

3) Childhood and Parents - First Trends

4) The Road to Civil Rights Movement - First perception of King and X as leaders
4.1) Martin Luther King and the Montgomery Bus Boycott
4.2) Malcolm X and the Nation of Islam:

5) Work as a civil rights activist
5.1) 1957-1963: Nonviolent resistance and "Black Power" - from the "Freedom Rides" to the "March on Washington"
5.2) "I Have a Dream" vs. "Message to the Grassroots"

6) From civil rights to human rights:
6.1) Malcolm X ‘last years - leaving the Nation of Islam, reorientation and murder:
6.2) 1964-1966: Suffrage in Selma and human rights in Chicago
6.3) Kings Final Years - Criticism of Southeast Asia Policy and Memphis as the last stop

7) Conclusion

8) Bibliography

1 Introduction

"I have a dream that one day, [...] right there in Alabama, little black boys and black girls will be able to join hands with little white boys and white girls as sisters and brothers. I have a dream today! "1

After countless years of oppression and discrimination, Martin Luther King gave African Americans courage and hope in front of the Lincoln Memorial in 1963 with these words. He believed that America's racist barriers could be overcome and dedicated his life to this end. Not all African Americans shared this confidence, however. The civil rights activist Malcolm X is considered to be an opponent of Martin Luther King, because he represented a separatist approach and strove to break away from the "wicked white race"2 at. But he, too, devoted his life to movement in his own way and in this context, like King, became a charismatic figure in equal measure3. Although King is considered the better known and more successful leader in the context of the movement, this assessment is based on subjective perception, as Malcolm X, for example, revolutionized the self-image of African Americans and massively strengthened their self-confidence4. Nonetheless, King gained more support in black and white society as he took a peaceful, moderate path, while Malcolm X took a radical course5. Ultimately, however, their respective paths ended in their death.

The present work presents the life and actions of the two most well-known civil rights activists in a comparative framework and focuses on the respective ideologies as well as the reasons that could have been decisive for the unequal approaches of both men. In addition, some historians are of the opinion that King and X most recently approached each other in their civil rights endeavors and that a collaboration might even have come about if X had not died in 19656. This thesis should also be investigated. It should be noted that the civil rights movement in the present work only forms the framework for the levels of comparison in the actions and thinking of both men, so that a complete and detailed description of the events of the movement is not expedient and is therefore not given.

Even if Malcolm X has not received nearly as much research attention as King compared to the diversity of the literature, the research on him can nonetheless be described as complex and varied. Research interest in Malcolm X began at the same time he joined the Nation of Islam7. On the one hand, his numerous speeches, television and radio interviews, letters and the like were collected and edited8. On the other hand, his autobiography formed the basis for further research, for example under psychological aspects, and among other things, Malcolm's influence on different age groups and attitudes was examined, as well as his representation in art and music9. There are also works by contemporary witnesses as well as by his children, which depict Malcolm X in different facets and each set different priorities in his description10.

Research on Martin Luther King is much more diverse, as the number of historical essays on King and the movement has increased particularly in the last decade11. The works that King himself wrote at the time of the civil rights movement form a good basis12 as well as the autobiography of his wife, Coretta Scott King, who describes her life with him in this13. In addition, as with Malcolm X, the research is also based on eyewitness reports and media recordings such as television appearances and letters14. However, there was also a change in research. While older works identified Martin Luther King as “the head of the movement consisting of different organizations with different interests”, recent research emphasizes that the organizations, even without King's charismatic figure, fought self-confidently and independently for their goals15. Thus, the character of King was demythologized in a certain way and viewed more rationally than before.

At the beginning of the present work, the reader is given a rough sketch of the events of the "Reconstruction"16 until Martin Luther King and Malcolm X ‘joined the civil rights movement, as some civil rights activists were already active at this time who were to shape their later ideologies. Then the origins of both men are examined, because although both grew up as the sons of black Baptist preachers17, their childhood, youth and education could hardly have been more diverse. So, through the influence of parents and early childhood experiences with whites, first indications can be found in which direction their respective attitudes on the subject of civil rights should develop. Chapter 4 discusses the path into the movement and the first activities of Martin Luther King and Malcolm X, as well as their first methodological tendencies, which were particularly dominated by their respective faiths. Following this, significant events from 1957-1963 are described in relation to their activities as civil rights activists. During this time, their methods and goals had already formed and consolidated and can be demonstrated using various statements and behavioral patterns. In addition, King's speech “I Have a Dream” and X's speech “Message to the Grassroots” are analyzed and compared, as these were given at the height of the movement and particularly vividly the differences between the two men with regard to the understanding of civil rights and goals worth striving for the movement. Chapter 6 deals with the period from 1964 to 1968, during which a restructuring of the attitudes of both men regarding the movement became apparent and both went through a kind of reorientation. This reorientation was the breeding ground for the above-mentioned thesis that Kings and X ‘ideologies would have converged last, so this aspect is also examined in this regard. Finally, the reader is given a conclusion in which the results of the various levels of comparison are shown and an assessment of the above thesis is given.

The source basis of the present work is mainly the autobiography of Malcolm X as well as the works "Where is our path leading?" And "Why we can't wait" by Martin Luther King and "My life with Martin Luther King" by Coretta Scott King, as well as various written speeches of both men like "I Have a Dream" and "Message to the Grassroots". Numerous works on Malcolm X and Martin Luther King, which analyze their work, their values ​​and ideals, such as Waldschmidt-Nelson's "antagonist", serve as a literary basis.18, Branch's trilogy on Martin Luther King19 and Clark's contemporary witness report on X ‘work in the Nation of Islam" Malcolm X. The Man and His Times "20. In order to be able to provide a differentiated view of the subject of the present work, numerous other works are used.

2) Civil Rights Developments until 1955 - Awakening Afro-American Self-Awareness

After the "Reconstruction" period, the first movements of the American civil rights movement began, which reached its peak in the 1950s and 1960s. One of the first well-known civil rights activists was Booker T. Washington, who strived for rights for blacks, but in a moderate way, by demonstrating the civilization and intelligence of African American society21. He believed that by doing so, white Americans would accept blacks as full human beings and grant them civil rights on their own22. For this he soon became an integrationist23 W. E. B. DuBois, who did not believe that African Americans would be granted civil rights without progressive practices24. That is why DuBois and other allies founded the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) in 1909, the first and to this day largest civil rights organization in the USA, which focused in particular on legal proceedings and educational work for blacks' rights25. One of their most significant victories was the decision to have the Grandfather Laws declared unconstitutional26. The most famous separatist27 at that time was Marcus Garvey, who founded the United Negro Improvement Association (UNIA) in New York in 191628. Garvey sought to bring the black race back to Africa as their original homeland, and he taught that blacks should only buy from blacks so that African American money could not fall into the hands of whites and black society would be strengthened through financial prosperity29. He also emphasized black racial pride, believing that African Americans would never get the respect of whites unless they demonstrated strength and pride30. The UNIA quickly gained influence in Afro-American society, so that the government as well as black integrationists soon saw a danger in the organization31. Garvey was arrested in 1923 on charges of fraud and after 2 years in prison deported to his native Jamaica, but his teachings formed the basis for numerous other separatist organizations such as the later Nation of Islam (NoI)32. The NoI was founded in 1930 by Wallace D. Fard in Detroit33. He named the headquarters of the organization "First Temple of Islam" and named Elijah Poole, later Elijah Muhammad, his closest confidante34. In 1934, Fard suddenly disappeared without a trace - there are theories that speak of murder - and Elijah Muhammad took over the regiment of the NoI35. He spread that Fard Allah was in human form, which could explain his sudden disappearance, and he was his prophet36. This enabled him to underpin his authority at the same time. He introduced the custom for all members to wear an X in place of their "white" family name until the original African name was determined37. The NoI believed in the principle that blacks are the original people and thus good and divine, whereas the whites are devils created through experimentation and thus inherently bad38. They also believed in an Armageddon, in which the black god Allah would help them in the fight against the white devils and destroy them39.

The Second World War also played a decisive role for the African-American civil rights movement, because ethnic minorities in particular wanted to claim for themselves those rights for which they had fought in the war40. The United States waged a war against National Socialism, although racism itself was practiced in its own country and was often legalized, e.g. through the segregation laws. As a result, it became more and more difficult for the government to justify this paradox and gradually increased resistance from the African American side41.

In 1941, under threat of a protest march in Washington, civil rights activist A. Philip Randolph managed to get the then President Franklin D. Roosevelt to ban racial discrimination in government work and related industries42. In 1942 the Congress of Racial Equality - CORE - was founded, made up of black and white students43. The following year, the group used sit-in strikes as a means of protest for the first time, gaining the attention of many other blacks who joined the protests against the segregation laws44. In 1946, President Truman set up a multiracial commission to study the living conditions of black people in America to get an idea of ​​the extent of racial problems45. In 1947 the commission published its extremely critical investigation report, which shocked President Truman so much that he submitted the first draft law on civil rights to Congress since the end of the "Reconstruction"46. However, no adoption was in sight, as they did not want to anger the MPs from the south and also lacked the necessary majority47. In 1954 the "Brown vs. Board of Education of Topeca" decision was made by the Supreme Court, which declared racial segregation in educational institutions illegal and thus the "Separate but Equal" doctrine48 repealed from 1896. This in turn caused concern among white southerners, who saw the ruling as a threat to the rest of the segregation laws49. A year later, hopes of speedy recovery among African Americans were again dashed, as the Supreme Court added an additional ruling to the ruling, which said that the individual states could determine the speed of integration themselves50. As a result, by 1964, fewer than 5% of all children in the southern United States were in integrated schools51. In August 1955, the murder of 14-year-old Emmett Till from Chicago, who spent the summer with relatives in the south and was not familiar with the local "rules of conduct", caused an international stir52. He addressed a white saleswoman ambiguously, whereupon he was badly mistreated by her friend and half-brother, executed with a shot in the head and tied to a fan and sunk in the river53. The perpetrators were caught but acquitted for the murder of a black man, which was common practice in the southern United States54. Historians consider the murder to be one of the fiery moments of the civil rights movement, as African-Americans in the south no longer wanted to tolerate such obvious injustices55. In addition, the incident received nationwide media attention and young people in particular were able to identify with Emmett Till56. All of these events strengthened the desire of the African American population for full civil rights and acceptance as human beings.

3) Childhood and Parents - First Trends

Martin Luther King and Malcolm X came into contact with the issue of racism from an early age, but as it turned out, they took two completely different positions. While King took the moderate, peaceful path modeled on Mahatma Gandhi, Malcolm X followed a more radical path57. But how did such different approaches come about? The first approaches and assumptions about this can be found in the origins and childhood of both men, which are outlined below.

Martin Luther King was born in Atlanta on January 15, 1929, the second of three children to Martin Luther King, Sr., and Alberta King58. Both his father and grandfather were pastors in the Ebenezer Baptist Church in Atlanta, and the family belonged to the black middle class, so he did not experience financial hardship as a child59. He performed excellently at school, which allowed him to skip a total of two grades, and in his spare time he played sports and played the violin60. This gives the impression of a fulfilled, happy childhood, because Martin had neither financial nor school worries, he was able to let off steam in sports and promote his creativity through music. However, the relationship with his father was not always carefree, because he had a fundamentalist belief and also raised his children in this sense, which is why there were some prohibitions and regulations for them61. Especially in Martin's early youth, he often reacted rebelliously and tried to get his way, which led to possible tensions between the two men62.

King was confronted with the problem of black and white for the first time at the age of six when the father of his fair-skinned friend forbade him to interact with his son63. Although he now understood that society apparently viewed dark-skinned people as inferior, his parents taught him that blacks are just as valuable and respectable as whites64. In addition, he shouldn't develop hatred of racist whites, but treat them with kindness and respect65. His parents taught him that the recognition and denial of human rights and dignity based on skin color was merely an artificial construct created by society. But after Martin had to endure the humiliation of his white fellow citizens a few times, it became increasingly difficult for him to continue to accept the torture without resistance, for example when he initially refused to vacate his seat in the bus for a white man who had already been his had verbally abused black passengers66. As will be shown, however, a few years later Martin Luther King decided against the burgeoning hatred of whites and for the path of integration and coexistence by peaceful means. In a sense, he followed in the footsteps of his ancestors, as his grandfather, Adam Daniel Williams, joined the NAACP at an early age and led a boycott against a racist magazine67. His son, Martin Luther King, Sr., even became a board member in the 1930s and organized various protests against the unequal treatment of African Americans68. So from an early age, Martin saw his family stand up for black rights and was taught not to hate whites, but also not to bow to whites' humiliation. From an early age, Martin was impressed not to deny his skin color, to be proud of it and to develop the self-confidence and inner strength to fight for his rights with peaceful methods.

Malcolm X ‘childhood, on the other hand, was fundamentally different from the consistently happy and carefree youth of Martin Luther King. Malcolm was born on May 19, 1925 in Omaha as the fourth child of Earl and Louise Little, Malcolm had a total of 7 other siblings and three half-siblings from his father's first marriage69. The family often faced financial difficulties70, probably not least because of the large number of people in the Little house. In addition, Earl Little was a Baptist preacher like Martin Luther King, Sr., but he did not have a permanent position, but preached temporarily in various churches71. This put a heavy strain on the harmony in the family and it is said that there were often fights between the parents, but also against the children72. Malcolm himself only found out whipping from his mother, which he related to the fact that he was the fairest skinned in the family and he suspected that he reminded his mother of the rape of her mother by a Scotsman from which she had emerged73. His father, however, hadn't hit him: “I actually believe that as anti-white as my father was, he was subconsciously so afflicted with the white man's brainwashing of Negroes that he inclined to favor the light ones, and I was his lightst child. ”74 The fact that Malcolm did not assume that his father had a natural love for him shows that he did not yet have a pronounced self-esteem at the time, which is why he later fled into the new identity as Malcolm X.

Although Malcolm's father was a Baptist, he was also a separatist and a staunch supporter of Marcus Garvey75So in the long term he also pursued the goal of repatriating the black population to Africa. He was also president of the UNIA's local branch in Omaha and often took Malcolm to meetings where he gave lectures on the “dignity of blacks” and “tyrannical whites”76. Earl Little's negative attitude quickly drew the anger of white racists, especially those of the Ku Klux Klan, on the family, so that they were forced to continuously change their place of residence due to various assaults and death threats77. On the one hand, this means that Malcolm experienced racial hatred from whites from an early age, compared to Martin Luther King's experiences to a far more extreme extent. On the other hand, Malcolm was deprived of stability by the constant moves and he was forced to give up his social contacts again and again. At the age of four, Malcolm also lost his home after a group of racists burned the house down and the Little family narrowly escaped death78. Two years later, Earl Little was found dead on the tracks of the tram and although witnesses and police spoke of a tragic accident, rumors of murder existed79. The accident theory is considered plausible in research, but Malcolm himself remained convinced that it was murder80. It is therefore obvious that especially through these experiences and the influence of his father, his hatred of whites was fueled and his desire for separation already germinated in these events.

After the death of his father, the situation for Malcolm and his family became even more precarious, as his earnings failed to materialize and the global economic crisis spread over the next few years81. The family received welfare and food donations, but in 1937 Social Services arranged for Malcolm to be placed in a foster family82. As a result, Louise Little suffered a nervous breakdown and spent the next 26 years in a mental hospital83. Malcolm believed the white officials were to blame for his mother's health, who he said put too much pressure on his mother84. He himself was expelled from school after they were admitted and taken to a home for difficult-to-raise children in Mason, while his siblings were divided into different foster families85. In the home, Malcolm gained stability for a short time. Malcolm became an excellent student, he played on the school's basketball team and was even elected class representative - this is particularly outstanding considering that he was the only black in the class86. However, it so happened that at the age of 15 he visited his half-sister Ella in Boston and was immensely impressed by the high number of blacks who lived there and by the feeling of being one black among many87. He was also demotivated by one of his teachers regarding his professional prospects by telling him that he should abandon the desire to become a lawyer and rather consider a real profession such as a carpenter - because of the color of his skin88. Thus, Malcolm was confronted again with the fact that he was demoted by society because of his skin color, although his performance in school was excellent. Unlike Martin Luther King, Malcolm was not taught to be proud of his skin color and to stand up for his rights, because he lived alone among whites at an early age and therefore saw himself as different from his classmates.

Overall, there are serious differences in the childhoods of both civil rights activists. King's childhood was consistently positive and harmonious, while Malcolm had some negative experiences and experienced violence inside and outside the family. It is noteworthy, however, that both men went through a period when their attitudes towards whites changed. For a time, Martin Luther King, despite his good upbringing, felt increasing anger against whites. Malcolm X, on the other hand, who had grown up with this anger all his life so far, was suddenly integrated into school by his white classmates and was popular. It can be assumed that childhood had an extremely formative influence on the later attitudes of both men, but this example also shows that they could easily have deviated from their previous attitudes and could have broken new ground.

4) The Road to Civil Rights Movement - First perception of King and X as leaders

4.1) Martin Luther King and the Montgomery Bus Boycott

Martin Luther King began his theology studies at Morehouse College in Atlanta in 1944, at the age of 15, which was open to African Americans only89. Although he initially considered a career as a doctor or lawyer, in 1947 he decided, like his father and grandfather, to become a pastor90. The following year he received ordination and was appointed second pastor of the Ebenezer Church91. He was also involved in the Atlanta Intercollegiate Council, a group of black and white students who worked together to abolish segregation laws92. During this time Martin's skeptical and negative attitude towards whites for a long time improved again93, presumably because he now saw that there were also whites who considered African-Americans as equals and did not downgrade them based on their skin color.

In 1948, King finished his undergraduate studies at Morehouse College and decided to do a master's degree in theology from Crozer's multiracial theology college in Chester94. There was an attack on Martin by a white man who accused him of ransacking his room and threatened him with a gun95. Martin met him calmly and tried to convince him of his innocence so that other students could persuade him to put down the gun96. Following this event, Martin did not sue the man, but accepted his apology - this earned him a lot of recognition from his fellow students97.

King completed his master's degree at the top of his class and received a doctoral scholarship to Boston University, where he received the title "Doctor of Theology" in 195598. Two years earlier, on June 18, 1953, he married Coretta Scott, a music student from Alabama, who in the coming years gave up her own career aspirations in order to support her husband in his church office and his work as a civil rights activist and to take care of the house and children take care of99.

During his student days, Martin dealt particularly with texts by Henry David Thoreau, which thematized the principle of individual civil disobedience100. Mahatma Gandhi had extended this principle from the individual to a whole group and proceeded with boycotts and protests against British rule in India101. Gandhi became Martin's great role model in his career as a civil rights activist, as did his conviction that "love and truth are the two most powerful weapons in the world"102. Gandhi is attributed Indian independence from the English crown by this method103. Martin was deeply impressed and inspired by Gandhi and after a trip to India began to play with the idea of ​​applying this principle to the African-American civil rights movement104. Furthermore, King dealt with the work of the theologian Reinhold Niebuhr (1892-1971) and the church historian Walter Rauschenbach (1861-1918), which led him to the realization that equality is a natural, God-given human right, since every person is independent be a child of God by the color of his skin105

Towards the end of his studies, Martin Luther King's image of God gradually formed. He believed in a God who loves all people regardless of skin color and who always helps the weak and the oppressed, which was fundamentally in line with traditional Baptist beliefs106. These basic ideas also resulted in the fact that racism and belief in God are incompatible with one another if God himself does not distinguish between the different skin colors. He later combined this belief with his work as a civil rights activist.

Despite numerous lucrative job offers in the academic field, Martin Luther King decided to take up active church service because he wanted to deal intensively with the problems of segregation107. The King family moved south, and in the spring of 1954 King accepted a position at Dexter Avenue Baptist Church in Montgomery, Alabama, which, with about 300 parishioners, was relatively small but included the wealthiest and most educated blacks in the area108. Shortly after taking office, Martin Luther King became involved in the fight for civil rights and now had the opportunity to actively implement his efforts against segregation.

Rosa Parks, a 41-year-old seamstress and member of the NAACP, was arrested on December 1, 1955 for refusing to vacate her seat on the bus for a white man109. As a result, Rosa Parks was arrested and fined for the segregation laws that required black passengers to vacate their seats for whites110. However, Parks also refused to pay for them111. The head of the NAACP local chapter in Montgomery, E. D. Nixon, wanted to make Park's case public and contacted the head of the Women's Political Council (WPC), Jo Ann Robinson, who had long had the idea of ​​boycotting racial segregation on buses112. Blacks were the bus companies' main customers, as most white Americans owned cars113. They printed about 50,000 leaflets calling on all black citizens of Montgomery not to use the buses next Monday to protest Rosa Parks' detention and racial segregation on buses114.

Nixon also called the black pastors in the area on December 2nd to win this bus boycott planned for December 5th115. King agreed and made his church available for a meeting of all interested pastors, at which they decided to recruit the parishioners for the boycott in the Sunday sermons116. In fact, on December 5th, the buses were deserted and a number of African Americans walked to work or carpooled - this was the first public protest by all black society in a city117. On the evening of the same day, due to the success of the event, a decision was made to extend the action, so around 3,500 people gathered in the church on Holt Street, as did around 4,000 people in front of the church who followed the action over loudspeakers118. King himself gave the speech, which he had prepared in just 20 minutes and delivered without notes, and delighted the audience, which he called on not to be guided by hate119. Furthermore, an organization to structure the extended boycott, the Montgomery Improvement Association (MIA), was founded that same evening, and King was declared its head thanks to his talent for speaking120. "This is how Martin Luther King, Jr., who was only 26 years old, became the official leader of the black resistance in Montgomery"121. The boycott soon garnered international attention and King was recognized around the world as a "charismatic leader" representing the interests of African Americans122. However, the boycott's popularity also fueled the hatred of the white racists for the black protesters, who were then harassed or even beaten up by them123. King in particular, as a representative of the boycott, was now her target and received around 40 threats a day124. In fact, on January 30, 1956, the King family's home was destroyed by a bomb explosion while King was delivering a speech for the MIA125. His wife and their first daughter, Yolanda, were in the house, but they were unharmed126. An angry crowd of African Americans gathered in front of the ruins of the house for revenge, but King again called on them not to be guided by hatred, which made a huge impression on the crowd considering what had happened127.

On November 13, 1956, the Supreme Court finally ruled that racial segregation on public transport was unconstitutional. On December 21, the Montgomery Bus boycott finally ended after 382 days and Rosa Parks and Martin Luther King drove through the city in the front row of a bus, cheered by the Afro-American population128.

The Montgomery Bus boycott was not initiated by Martin Luther King himself, but his success came from his role as a representative of the striking black population. The boycott can be seen as the beginning of King's career as a civil rights activist and is often equated with the beginning of the civil rights movement of the 1950s and 60s129. Coretta S. King described the boycott in her autobiography as "soil in which a new theory of social action took root"130. About 50,000 African Americans took part in the Montgomery strike and followed Martin Luther King's words131. In particular, the black and white middle class, left-wing liberals and, to a certain extent, conservative blacks of the older generations should be among King's supporters in the years to come132. His opponents included particularly racist southerners, the right-wing and conservatives in Congress, as well as black nationalists who vehemently opposed his integration policy133.

4.2) Malcolm X and the Nation of Islam:

Malcolm X's path into the civil rights movement was less straightforward than that of Martin Luther King. After school he moved to his half-sister Ella in Boston in the fall of 1940, where he took a job as a shoe cleaner in front of a dance hall, where he also met some criminals134. Shortly afterwards, Malcolm stopped cleaning shoes, selling and consuming drugs and referring prostitutes to potential clients135. He spent his free time playing, dancing and drinking alcohol, so that he slipped further and further into the criminal scene. He also wore flashy suits, had his hair straightened with chemicals and had a white girlfriend136. All of this conflicts with his motive for originally moving to Boston: anonymity - the feeling of being one black among many. This suggests that Malcolm X may have experienced an identity crisis at this stage of his life, because Malcolm wanted to distance himself from whites since early childhood, but now he had a relationship with a white person and wanted to approach them visually.

Malcolm first visited New York in 1942 and was impressed by its black residents137. In 1943 he took a job as a waiter in a nightclub, but quickly lost it, and from then on he devoted himself exclusively to criminal business, which included pimping, illegal gambling, drug trafficking, theft and armed robbery138. In 1945 Malcolm returned to Boston and organized a new burglar ring, including with his white girlfriend and her sister139. They were finally arrested in January 1946, and while his friend Bea and her sister got away with a five-year suspended sentence, Malcolm was sentenced to 10 years in prison140. With regard to this long prison sentence, there were suspicions that the judges punished Malcolm to this extent not primarily for the break-in, but for the relationship with a white person141.

Malcolm was transferred to Charlestown State Prison, where he met a fellow prisoner named Bimbi in 1947, who was known in prison for his extensive knowledge of various fields and who believed that knowledge meant power and independence142. This inspired Malcolm and so he began to self-taught by reading books143. Malcolm dealt particularly intensively with texts by black civil rights activists such as W. E. B. DuBois and European philosophers such as Kant, and he was also very interested in the history of black slavery in America and the oppression by whites144.

One day Malcolm received a letter from his brother Reginald telling him about the Nation of Islam, of which he was already a member145. He reported of Allah as the only true God, of Elijah Muhammad, who spoke to them as his prophet, and of the fact that the whites are really all devils who wanted to oppress the blacks146. In 1948 Malcolm converted to Islam and joined the NoI, whereupon a lively correspondence began with Elijah Muhammad and he intensified his studies on racial problems147. Malcolm's entry into the Nation of Islam is widely viewed in scholarship as the beginning of his career148, since his life was previously quite unstructured and now a certain order and, above all, a firmness of his faith manifested.

After seven and a half years, Malcolm was released early in August 1952 and moved to his brother Wilbert in Detroit, where he got to know the life of a devout Muslim family149. He took a liking to it and a short time later drove to Chicago to Temple No. 2, where he first heard Elijah Muhammad speak in person150. In September 1952 he went from Malcolm Little to Malcolm X - as a token of his membership in the NoI151. He devoted his spare time entirely to the service of the NoI and was appointed assistant priest of Temple No. 1 in Detroit in June 1953, whereupon he even quit his job at Ford to devote all of his time to the organization152.

Malcolm's sermons were very popular because he, like Martin Luther King, had an above-average speaking talent and was considered funny and dynamic153. Malcolm was able to win over young African-Americans in particular to the NoI, and Elijah Muhammad was soon so convinced of him that in June 1954 he made him head of Temple No. 7 in New York154. The Harlem temple had very low membership, despite the fact that New York had over a million African Americans, and Elijah Muhammad put all his hopes on that Malcolm X's inspiring rhetoric would solve this problem155. Malcolm tried hard to increase the number of members, but this was initially rather sluggish because at that time there were many different religious communities in Harlem and the NoI was largely unknown156. He then began printing leaflets and distributing them around town157. This shows that he went innovative ways and was very ambitious and ambitious.

In his sermons he used his acquired knowledge of the rule of whites over blacks and tried to convince his audience of the teachings of the NoI with presented facts and logical conclusions158. Malcolm represented black nationalism and, following Garvey's example, counted himself among the separatists. Like Garvey, Malcolm's primary aim was to repatriate blacks to Africa, financed by the American government159. If America does not want this, then it should provide fertile territory for resettlement, as well as money, clothing, machinery, and food until African Americans could support themselves160. He described these demands as debt settlement after slavery: “After four hundred years of slave labor, we have some back pay coming. A bill that is owed to us and must be collected. "161 For example, although he was the son of a Baptist preacher, Malcolm referred to Christianity as the religion of white devils and the Bible as "weapon that white people use to enslave non-white people"162. Presumably the negative experiences with whites in his childhood and youth had shaped him in such a way that he decided to live a life apart from white society163. In addition, at this point in time, civil rights and Islam seemed inseparable for him164, since he always justified the necessity of the movement in addition to historical facts with the belief of the NoI that whites are the unnatural race and devils.

Membership soon increased and two Temple No. 7 branches opened in Brooklyn and Queens165. Because of these successes, Malcolm was soon sent to other cities to preach166. The number of members increased so rapidly in these cities that the NoI was able to open numerous other temples in major cities in the United States167. Just two years after his imprisonment, Malcolm X was already considered the most charismatic member of the NoI and his relationship with Elijah Muhammad also steadied more and more, so that soon there was talk of a father-son relationship168.

In 1957 he met Betty Sanders, a 23-year-old nurse who gave free nursing classes to women at Temple No. 7 in Harlem169. Malcolm quickly found pleasure in their commitment to the NoI and their deep Muslim faith, so that the marriage took place on January 14, 1958. In April 1957, Malcolm X gained national popularity when a member of the NoI, Johnson Hinton, was beaten up and jailed for trying to help a black victim of police brutality. A short time later, around 100 members of the "Fruit of Islam" gathered170, including Malcolm X. As more and more members of the NoI gathered outside the police station, Malcolm asked to be taken to Hinton. The police initially refused, but the crowd became more and more restless and was evidently ready to storm the guard, so he was finally allowed to pass. Hinton was still unconscious and covered in blood, whereupon Malcolm demanded the transfer to a hospital and the punishment of the perpetrators. The chief of police presumably accepted Malcolm's demands out of fear, as around 2,000 African-Americans had now gathered in front of the station. In return, he asked Malcolm to act on the crowd. Malcolm went out, wordlessly raised an arm, the crowd fell silent and began to disperse. Hinton's impressive rescue spread beyond the borders of New York and ensured a further increase in the number of members of the NoI to over 20,000. Elijah Muhammad appointed Malcolm as the organization's national representative after this event.

As a result of this incident, Malcolm X became the face of the black Islamist association and probably became a role model for many African Americans because of his talent for speech and his self-assured demeanor. Compared to Martin Luther King's bus boycott, however, Malcolm's success is less than that. On the one hand, King's measure lasted for over a year and thus demonstrated perseverance and a strong will for freedom of the black population. On the other hand, the boycott gained international attention. However, Malcolm's appearance was situational and his popularity was limited to New York and the surrounding area even after this action171. However, the backing he received from the ranks of NoI's members should not be underestimated, as is his credit for the fact that the numbers soared so rapidly.

5) Work as a civil rights activist

5.1) 1957-1963: Nonviolent resistance and "Black Power" - from the "Freedom Rides" to the "March on Washington"

The Montgomery Bus boycott had brought Martin Luther King to international popularity. The NAACP awarded him the Medal of Honor in June 1957 and many well-known newspapers dedicated cover stories to him, conducted interviews with him and in 1957 he was even invited as a guest of honor to the Ghanaian independence celebration172. Malcolm X, on the other hand, remained largely unknown until the late 1950s.

On January 10, 1957, the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) was founded, a kind of umbrella organization for all church civil rights groups in the American South, whose president King was again appointed173. The main concern of the SCLC was to encourage the African-American population to enroll on the electoral roll and to educate them about their constitutional rights as citizens of the United States, but it would be a long time before a measurable increase in voter registration was recorded174.

To mark the 3rd anniversary of the Brown decision, King, along with other civil rights activists, organized a prayer pilgrimage to Washington, D.C. and held his first public speech there in front of around 25,000 participants175. In this he called on the government to campaign for the integration of blacks in the educational cities in the south, which was legally established by the Supreme Court in 1954, as well as for the right to vote176. As a result, on September 9, 1957, Congress passed the Civil Rights Act and a new commission was established in the Justice Department to investigate the various areas and forms of civil rights violations177. President Eisenhower even sent federal troops to protect African-American students who wanted to attend Little Rock Central High School in Arkansas, a former school for whites that blacks had not been allowed to attend despite the Brown decision178. As a result, King realized how difficult the integration he was aiming for would be, especially in the south, so he traveled all over the country to get financial and moral support for his work as a civil rights activist179. In the fall of 1958 his first book "Stride Toward Freedom: The Montgomery Story" was published, which addressed the bus boycott and thus King's entry into the civil rights movement180. By writing his work as a civil rights activist, King was able to convince other African American and white non-racists of his ideals and ideas and gain further supporters in the struggle for equality, as well as generate further funding for the movement181. The numerous sales of his books to black and white buyers could reduce the "contemporary acceptance and credibility of the published thoughts"182 Kings represented.

From 1959, King turned his full attention to the civil rights movement and resigned from his job as a pastor in Montgomery183. The reason for this was a four-week trip to India at the beginning of the year with his wife as a guest of Indian President Nehrus, during which he was able to identify directly with Mahatma Gandhi and his method of peaceful resistance - he was now more than ever convinced that he was pursuing its goals in the civil rights movement with the right methods184. However, Nehru King had stated that he did not know how Mahatma Gandhi would have dealt with the problems that King was trying to overcome in America185. This shows that President Nehru was not entirely convinced that the method of nonviolent resistance would be as effective in America as it was in India in the time of Gandhi. King had to grapple with this criticism more often over the years. Malcolm X put the problem with implementing nonviolent resistance in America as follows: “Gandhi was a large dark elephant perched on a small white mouse. King is a little black mouse that sits on top of a large white elephant. "186 He was alluding to the numerical inferiority of blacks in America, whereas behind Mahatma Gandhi a whole nation stood for the mass protests against the British. Again, King did not believe that violence as a strategy would work in racist America, also on the grounds of numerical inferiority187. In his sermons, King argued that his method would stand up before God because enduring undeserved suffering is both instructive and refined of the spirit, and it renews the soul188. Like Malcolm X, he combined his endeavors in the movement with his divine belief. In King's eyes, the nonviolent resistance was an active effort for conversion and change in relation to racist structures, i.e. the actions were not directed against individuals such as racists, but against racist practices and realities189. Coretta S. King even described the resistance as "a militant organization that believed non-violence to be the most powerful weapon available."190 So they seemed to have been fully convinced of the effectiveness of their method.

As a result, the King family moved back to Atlanta in January 1960 to be at the SCLC headquarters191. Malcolm X also put his private life behind his work and, on behalf of Elijah Muhammad, undertook a number of trips in July 1959 as an ambassador for the NoI, for example in Iran, Egypt, Syria and Ghana192. He also achieved national fame on television at the same time with a five-part report on the NoI entitled "The Hate That Hate Produced"193. The white public, who had never heard of the NoI before, now learned through Malcolm X, who represented the organization, that there was a black group with a paramilitary branch in the US fueled by hatred of whites194. This shocking finding was the subject of all the media in the country, Malcolm X became a sought-after interviewee and was invited to discussion events by renowned universities195. He fueled the fear of white Americans even more by explicitly naming blacks' hatred of whites in an interview: “How can anybody ask us do we hate the man who kidnapped us four hundred years ago, brought us here and stripped us of our history, […] our culture, […] our language, stripped us of everything that you could use today to prove that you were ever part of the human family […]. "196

[...]



1 King, Martin L./Washington, James M (ed.): I Have a Dream. Writings and Speeches That Changed the World, San Francisco 2007, p. 105.

2 Goodman, Benjamin (ed.) / X, Malcolm: The End of White World Supremacy, New York 1971, p. 72.

3 See Hart, William D .: Black Religion. Malcolm X, Julius Lester, and Jan Willis, New York (et al.) 2008, p. 61.

4 See Waldschmidt-Nelson, Britta: opponent. Martin Luther King, Malcolm X, Frankfurt am Main 2000, p. 155f.

5 See ibid., Pp. 149ff.

6 See Kirk, John A .: Martin Luther King, Jr., and the Civil Rights Movement. Controversies and Debates, Basingstoke (et al.) 2007, p. 111; Lawson, Steven F./Payne, Charles: Debating the Civil Rights Movement, 1945-1968 (Debating 20th Century America), New York (et al.) 1998, p. 133; Jackson, Thomas F .: From Civil Rights to Human Rights. Martin Luther King, Jr., and the Struggle for Economic Justice (Politics and Culture in Modern America), Pennsylvania 2007, p. 216; Waldschmidt-Nelson, Britta: Opponent. Martin Luther King, Malcolm X, pp. 154ff.

7 See Terrill, Robert: The Cambridge Companion to Malcolm X, Cambridge (et al.) 2011, pp. 1f.

8 See ibid.

9 See ibid.

10 See ibid.

11 See.Dietrich, Tobias: Martin Luther King (UTB Profile, vol. 3023), Paderborn 2008, p. 12.

12 See ibid.

13 See King, Coretta S .: My life with Martin Luther King, Stuttgart 1970.

14 See Dietrich, Tobias: Martin Luther King, p. 13f.

15 See ibid., P. 41.

16 “Reconstruction” refers to the period of reconstruction after the American Civil War (1861-1865).

17 See Waldschmidt-Nelson, Britta: opponent. Martin Luther King, Malcolm X, p. 13.

18 Waldschmidt-Nelson, Britta: Opponent. Martin Luther King, Malcolm X, Frankfurt am Main 2000.

19 Branch, Taylor: Parting the Waters. Martin Luther King and the Civil Rights Movement, 1954-63, London 1990; Branch, Taylor: Pillar of Fire. America in the King Years 1963-65, New York (et al.) 1998; Branch, Taylor: At Canaan's Edge. America in the King Years 1965-68, New York (et al.) 2006.

20 Clarke, John H .: Malcolm X. The Man and His Times, Toronto 1969.

21 See Waldschmidt-Nelson, Britta: opponent. Martin Luther King, Malcolm X, p. 26.

22 See Kirk, John A .: Martin Luther King, Jr., and the Civil Rights Movement. Controversies and Debates, p. 112.

23 Black integrationists called for integration into white society and believed that African culture can coexist with American values.

24 See Dietrich, Tobias: Martin Luther King, p. 32.

25 See Lawson, Steven F./Payne, Charles: Debating the Civil Rights Movement, 1945-1968, p. 3.

26 Cf. Moosbrugger, Daniel: The American civil rights movement. “Black Revolution” in the 1950s and 60s, Stuttgart 2004, p. 14.

27 After years of slavery and oppression, black separatists no longer believed that integration into white society would be possible without completely abandoning their original culture. Therefore, they sought a return to Africa or a black parallel society with self-government.

28 See Hart, William D .: Black Religion. Malcolm X, Julius Lester, and Jan Willis, pp. 24ff.

29 See Waldschmidt-Nelson, Britta: opponent. Martin Luther King, Malcolm X, p. 29f.

30 See Cone, James H .: Martin and Malcolm and America: A Dream or a Nightmare ?, in: Martin Luther King, Jr., and the Civil Rights Movement. Controversies and Debates, ed. v. Kirk, John A., Basingstoke (et al.) 2007, p. 125.

31 See Waldschmidt-Nelson, Britta: opponent. Martin Luther King, Malcolm X, p. 30.

32 See ibid.

33 See ibid., P. 55.

34 See ibid.

35 See ibid.

36 Cf. Kämper, Heinz / Zips, Werner: Nation X. Schwarzer Nationalismus, Black Exodus & Hip-Hop, Vienna 2001, p. 221.

37 See Waldschmidt-Nelson, Britta: opponent. Martin Luther King, Malcolm X, p. 56.

38 See Hart, William D .: Black Religion. Malcolm X, Julius Lester, and Jan Willis, pp. 42ff.

39 See ibid.

40 See Franklin, John H./Moss, Alfred A. Jr .: From Slavery to Freedom. A History of African Americans, New York 1994, p. 456.

41 See Zhang, Aimin: The Origins of the African American Civil Rights Movement, 1865-1956 (Studies in African American History and Culture), New York (et al.) 2002, p. 108.

42 See Lawson, Steven F./Payne, Charles: Debating the Civil Rights Movement, 1945-1968, p. 5.

43 See ibid., P. 21.

44 See Waldschmidt-Nelson, Britta: opponent. Martin Luther King, Malcolm X, p. 167.

45 Cf. Moosbrugger, Daniel: The American civil rights movement. “Black Revolution” in the 1950s and 60s, p. 12.

46 See ibid.

47 See Cooper, William J. Jr./Terrill, Thomas E .: The American South. A History, New York 1990, p. 705.

48 The doctrine stated that racial segregation was legal in public facilities as long as the facilities were designed to be equivalent. However, the institutions for the African American population were often of inferior quality.

49 See Flamm, Michael W./Steigerwald, David: Debating the 1960s. Liberal, Conservative, and Radical Perspectives (Debating 20th Century America), New York (et al.) 2008, p. 132.

50 See ibid.

51 Cf. Moosbrugger, Daniel: The American civil rights movement. “Black Revolution” in the 1950s and 60s, p. 29.

52 See Sundquist, Eric J .: King’s Dream (Icons of America, Vol. 7), New Haven (et al.) 2009, p. 81.

53 Cf. Moosbrugger, Daniel: The American civil rights movement. “Black Revolution” in the 1950s and 60s, p. 30

54 See ibid.

55 See Lewis, George: Massive Resistance. The White Response to the Civil Rights Movement, London 2006, p. 48.

56 Cf. Moosbrugger, Daniel: The American civil rights movement. "Black Revolution" in the 1950s and 60s, p. 31.

57 See Waldschmidt-Nelson, Britta: opponent. Martin Luther King, Malcolm X, p. 13.

58 See ibid., P. 35.

59 See ibid.

60 See ibid.

61 See ibid., P. 36.

62 See ibid.

63 See ibid.

64 See ibid., P. 36f.

65 Cf. Moosbrugger, Daniel: The American civil rights movement. "Black Revolution" in the 1950s and 60s, p. 57.

66 See Waldschmidt-Nelson, Britta: opponent. Martin Luther King, Malcolm X, p. 37.

67 Cf. Moosbrugger, Daniel: The American civil rights movement. “Black Revolution” in the 1950s and 60s, p. 58.

68 See ibid.

69 See Waldschmidt-Nelson, Britta: opponent. Martin Luther King, Malcolm X, p. 39f.

70 Cf. Moosbrugger, Daniel: The American civil rights movement. “Black Revolution” in the 1950s and 60s, p. 125.

71 See Haley, Alex / X, Malcolm: The Autobiography of Malcolm X, New York 1992, p. 7.

72 See Dyson, Michael Eric: Reflecting Black: African-American Cultural Criticism, in: Martin Luther King, Jr., and the Civil Rights Movement. Controversies and Debates, ed. v. Kirk, John A., Basingstoke (et al.) 2007, p. 136.

73 See Clarke, John H .: Malcolm X. The Man and His Times, p. XIV.

74 Haley, Alex / X, Malcolm: The Autobiography of Malcolm X, pp. 6f.

75 See Hart, William D .: Black Religion. Malcolm X, Julius Lester, and Jan Willis, p. 24.

76 Waldschmidt-Nelson, Britta: Opponent. Martin Luther King, Malcolm X, p. 41.

77 Cf. Moosbrugger, Daniel: The American civil rights movement. “Black Revolution” in the 1950s and 60s, p. 125.

78 See Clarke, John H .: Malcolm X. The Man and His Times, p. XIV.

79 See Waldschmidt-Nelson, Britta: opponent. Martin Luther King, Malcolm X, p. 41.

80 See ibid., P. 181.

81 See Haley, Alex / X, Malcolm: The Autobiography of Malcolm X, pp. 14f.

82 Cf. Moosbrugger, Daniel: The American civil rights movement. “Black Revolution” in the 1950s and 60s, pp. 125f.

83 See Haley, Alex / X, Malcolm: The Autobiography of Malcolm X, p. 24.

84 See ibid.

85 Cf. Moosbrugger, Daniel: The American civil rights movement. “Black Revolution” in the 1950s and 60s, p. 126.

86 See Clarke, John H .: Malcolm X. The Man and His Times, p. XIV.

87 See Waldschmidt-Nelson, Britta: opponent. Martin Luther King, Malcolm X, p. 43.

88 See Marable, Manning: Malcolm X. A Life of Reinvention, London (et al.) 2011, p. 38.

89 See Waldschmidt-Nelson, Britta: opponent. Martin Luther King, Malcolm X, p. 39.

90 Cf. Moosbrugger, Daniel: The American civil rights movement. “Black Revolution” in the 1950s and 60s, p. 59.

91 See ibid.

92 See Waldschmidt-Nelson, Britta: opponent. Martin Luther King, Malcolm X, p. 47.

93 See Dyson, Michael Eric: Reflecting Black: African-American Cultural Criticism, in: Martin Luther King, Jr., and the Civil Rights Movement. Controversies and Debates, ed. v. Kirk, John A., p. 135.

94 Cf. Moosbrugger, Daniel: The American civil rights movement. “Black Revolution” in the 1950s and 60s, p. 60.

95 See ibid.

96 See ibid.

97 See Waldschmidt-Nelson, Britta: opponent. Martin Luther King, Malcolm X, p. 48.

98 Cf. Moosbrugger, Daniel: The American civil rights movement. "Black Revolution" in the 1950s and 60s, p. 60.

99 See Waldschmidt-Nelson, Britta: opponent. Martin Luther King, Malcolm X, pp. 58f.

100 See ibid., P. 48f.

101 See ibid., P. 49.

102 Ibid.

103 See ibid.

104 Cf. King, Coretta S .: My life with Martin Luther King, p. 145.

105 See Dietrich, Tobias: Martin Luther King, p. 44.

106 See Waldschmidt-Nelson, Britta: opponent. Martin Luther King, Malcolm X, pp. 50f.

107 Cf. Moosbrugger, Daniel: The American civil rights movement. “Black Revolution” in the 1950s and 60s, p. 61.

108 See ibid.

109 See Isserman, Maurice / Kazin, Michael: America Divided. The Civil War of the 1960s, New York (et al.) 2004, p. 30.

110 Cf. Moosbrugger, Daniel: The American civil rights movement. “Black Revolution” in the 1950s and 60s, p. 42.

111 See ibid.

112 See Lawson, Steven F./Payne, Charles: Debating the Civil Rights Movement, 1945-1968, p. 14.

113 See Isserman, Maurice / Kazin, Michael: America Divided. The Civil War of the 1960s, p. 30.

114 See ibid.

115 See Lawson, Steven F./Payne, Charles: Debating the Civil Rights Movement, 1945-1968, p. 14.

116 See Waldschmidt-Nelson, Britta: opponent. Martin Luther King, Malcolm X, p. 67.

117 Cf. Moosbrugger, Daniel: The American civil rights movement. “Black Revolution” in the 1950s and 60s, p. 43.

118 See Isserman, Maurice / Kazin, Michael: America Divided. The Civil War of the 1960s, p. 30.

119 See Hansen, Drew D .: The Dream. Martin Luther King, Jr., and the Speech That Inspired a Nation, New York 2003, pp. 7ff.

120 See Isserman, Maurice / Kazin, Michael: America Divided. The Civil War of the 1960s, p. 30.

121 Waldschmidt-Nelson, Britta: Opponent. Martin Luther King, Malcolm X, p. 69.

122 See Berg, Manfred: Geschichte der USA (Oldenbourg Grundriss der Geschichte, Vol. 42), Munich 2013, p. 74.

123 See Waldschmidt-Nelson, Britta: opponent. Martin Luther King, Malcolm X, p. 69.

124 See ibid.

125 See Isserman, Maurice / Kazin, Michael: America Divided. The Civil War of the 1960s, p. 31.

126 See ibid.

127 See Jackson, Thomas F .: From Civil Rights to Human Rights. Martin Luther King, Jr., and the Struggle for Economic Justice, pp. 60ff.

128 See Waldschmidt-Nelson, Britta: opponent. Martin Luther King, Malcolm X, pp. 70f.

129 Cf. Moosbrugger, Daniel: The American civil rights movement. “Black Revolution” in the 1950s and 60s, p. 42.

130 King, Coretta S .: My Life with Martin Luther King, p. 123.

131 See Jackson, Thomas F .: From Civil Rights to Human Rights. Martin Luther King, Jr., and the Struggle for Economic Justice, p. 6.

132 See ibid.

133 See ibid., P. 135.

134 See Clarke, John H .: Malcolm X. The Man and His Times, p. XIV.

135 See Waldschmidt-Nelson, Britta: opponent. Martin Luther King, Malcolm X, p. 44.

136 See ibid.

137 See Hart, William D .: Black Religion. Malcolm X, Julius Lester, and Jan Willis, p. 30.

138 See Waldschmidt-Nelson, Britta: opponent. Martin Luther King, Malcolm X, pp. 44f.

139 Cf. Moosbrugger, Daniel: The American civil rights movement. “Black Revolution” in the 1950s and 60s, p. 127.

140 See ibid.

141 See Waldschmidt-Nelson, Britta: opponent. Martin Luther King, Malcolm X, p. 45.

142 See Ensslen, Klaus: "The Autobiography of Malcolm X". Black consciousness in America (text and history: model analyzes for English and American literature, vol. 5), Munich 1983, p. 57.

143 See ibid.

144 See Waldschmidt-Nelson, Britta: opponent. Martin Luther King, Malcolm X, p. 51f.

145 See Clarke, John H .: Malcolm X. The Man and His Times, S. XV.

146 See Waldschmidt-Nelson, Britta: opponent. Martin Luther King, Malcolm X, pp. 53f.

147 See ibid., P. 56f.

148 See Asante, Molefi K .: Malcolm X As Cultural Hero & Other Afrocentric Essays, Trenton 1993, p. 26.

149 See Waldschmidt-Nelson, Britta: opponent. Martin Luther King, Malcolm X, p. 57.

150 See ibid.

151 See ibid.

152 Cf. Moosbrugger, Daniel: The American civil rights movement. "Black Revolution" in the 1950s and 60s, p. 130.

153 See Isserman, Maurice / Kazin, Michael: America Divided. The Civil War of the 1960s, p. 44.

154 Cf. Moosbrugger, Daniel: The American civil rights movement. “Black Revolution” in the 1950s and 60s, p. 130.

155 See Waldschmidt-Nelson, Britta: opponent. Martin Luther King, Malcolm X, p. 58.

156 See ibid., P. 71.

157 See ibid., P. 71f.

158 See ibid., P. 72.

159 See Goodman, Benjamin (ed.) / X, Malcolm: The End of White World Supremacy, p. 74.

160 See ibid.

161 See ibid., P. 75.

162 Hart, William D .: Black Religion. Malcolm X, Julius Lester, and Jan Willis, p. 63.

163 See Dyson, Michael Eric: Reflecting Black: African-American Cultural Criticism, in: Martin Luther King, Jr., and the Civil Rights Movement. Controversies and Debates, ed. v. Kirk, John A., p. 136.

164 See Leader, Edward R .: Understanding Malcolm X. The Controversial Changes in His Political Philosophy, New York 1993, pp. 69f.

165 Cf. Moosbrugger, Daniel: The American civil rights movement. “Black Revolution” in the 1950s and 60s, p. 130.

166 Cf. Clegg, Claude: Malcolm X and Elijah Muhammad, in: The Cambridge Companion to Malcolm X, ed. v. Terrill, Robert, Cambridge (et al.) 2011, p. 15.

167 Cf. Moosbrugger, Daniel: The American civil rights movement. "Black Revolution" in the 1950s and 60s, p. 130.

168 See Hart, William D .: Black Religion. Malcolm X, Julius Lester, and Jan Willis, p. 61.

169 The entire section refers to: Waldschmidt-Nelson, Britta: opponents. Martin Luther King, Malcolm X, pp. 73-75.

170 The "Fruit of Islam" was a paramilitary organization of black young men within the NoI.

171 See Waldschmidt-Nelson, Britta: opponent. Martin Luther King, Malcolm X, p. 74.

172 See ibid., P. 76.

173 See Isserman, Maurice / Kazin, Michael: America Divided. The Civil War of the 1960s, p. 32.

174 See Waldschmidt-Nelson, Britta: opponent. Martin Luther King, Malcolm X, p. 77.

175 See Dietrich, Tobias: Martin Luther King, p. 57.

176 See Waldschmidt-Nelson, Britta: opponent. Martin Luther King, Malcolm X, p. 77.

177 See Lawson, Steven F./Payne, Charles: Debating the Civil Rights Movement, 1945-1968, pp. 13f.

178 See ibid.

179 Cf. King, Coretta S .: My life with Martin Luther King, p. 115.

180 See Dietrich, Tobias: Martin Luther King, p. 12f.

181 See ibid., P. 13.

182 Ibid., P. 44.

183 See Waldschmidt-Nelson, Britta: opponent. Martin Luther King, Malcolm X, p. 80.

184 See ibid., P. 45f.

185 See Branch, Taylor: Parting the Waters. Martin Luther King and the Civil Rights Movement, 1954-63, p. 251.

186 Cf. Perry, Bruce: Malcolm X. A man changes America, Hamburg 1993, p. 332.

187 See Dyson, Michael Eric: Reflecting Black: African-American Cultural Criticism, in: Martin Luther King, Jr., and the Civil Rights Movement. Controversies and Debates, ed. v. Kirk, John A., p. 137.

188 See Burns, Stewart: To the Mountaintop. Martin Luther King Jr.’s Sacred Mission to Save America: 1955-1968, New York 2004, p. 125.

189 See Dietrich, Tobias: Martin Luther King, p. 49.

190 Cf. King, Coretta S .: My life with Martin Luther King, p. 126.

191 See Waldschmidt-Nelson, Britta: opponent. Martin Luther King, Malcolm X, p. 80.

192 See ibid., P. 75.

193 See Hansen, Drew D .: The Dream. Martin Luther King, Jr., and the Speech That Inspired a Nation, p. 147.

194 See Clarke, John H .: Malcolm X. The Man and His Times, p. XVII.

195 See Waldschmidt-Nelson, Britta: opponent. Martin Luther King, Malcolm X, p. 82.

196 Goodman, Benjamin (ed.) / X, Malcolm: The End of White World Supremacy, pp. 79f.

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