What was life like in Great Britain in 1912

Timeline of British history

As a supplement to the compact version of the guide's timetable, you will find further entries that are also relevant to cultural history:

(Note: The following list does not claim to be complete, the facts mentioned have been selected subjectively)

3000-2000 BC BC - Creation of Stonehenge

500 BC BC - settlement by the Celts

from 55 BC BC - Roman occupation of what is now England and Wales

400-500 - mystical legend about King Arthur and the Knights of the Round Table

410 - Departure of the Romans

from 449 - invasion by the Anglo-Saxons (Angling, Saxons and Jutes); Great Britain is divided into seven kingdoms; Missionaries from Rome bring Christianity to the island; later about 300 years of Viking rule

886 - Alfred the Great (847-899), King of Wessex and the Anglo-Saxons

until 1034 - unification of several Scottish territories to Kingdom of Scotia

1066 - Battle of Hastings: William the Conqueror (1028-1087) becomes King of England; Beginning of the Norman rule until 1154; Unification of small kingdoms and introduction of a feudal system based on the French model

1124 - Scottish King David I (1080-1153), Edinburgh we Scottish capital

1154 - Henry II (1133-1189) founds the Angevin Empire

1189-1199 - Richard I (Richard the Lionheart) (1157-1199), participates in the Third Crusade

1215 - King John (1166-1216) signs the Magna Carta Libertatum; political freedoms for the nobility; Building a royal council; Cornerstone of parliamentarism; Independence of the Church from the Crown

Mid-13th century - Robin Hood legend

1265 - First House of Commons meets

from 1282 - King Edward I (1239-1307) conquers Wales and invades Scotland

1306 - Robert Bruce (1274-1329) becomes King of Scotland

1296-1357 - Scottish Wars of Independence; 1328 Recognition of a Scottish Kingdom

1337-1453 - 100 years war against France

1400-1404 - Welsh independence aspirations led by Owain Glyndwr (1355-1416)

1455 - War of the Roses between the House of Lancaster and the House of York the succession to the throne

1485 - Henry VII (1457-1509), member of the House of Lancaster, defeated Richard III (1452-1485); Beginning of the Tudor rule until 1603

1509 - Henry VIII (1491-1547) ascends the throne

1513 - English defeat Scots

1534/1535 - Henry VIII turns his back on Rome and becomes head of the newly founded by him Church of England

1536 - Act of Union: Union of England and Wales

1547 - Edward VI (1537-1553; son of Henry VIII and Jane Seymor) becomes king at the age of nine

1553 - Jane Gray (1537-1554; granddaughter of Henry's younger sister Mary) takes over the throne at the request of the dying Edward

1553 - Mary I, Bloody Mary, (1516-1558; daughter of Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon) takes the throne; Marriage to Philip II of Spain; England becomes Catholic again

1558 - Elizabeth I, The Virgin Queen, (1533-1603; daughter of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn) ascends the throne after the death of her half-sister Mary I; England becomes Protestant

William Shakespeare (circa 1564-1616) English novelist (Romeo and Juliet, King Lear, Hamlet, Othello, The Merry Wives of Windsor, A Midsummer Night’s Dream, Much ado about Nothing, Macbeth)

1580 - Sir Francis Drake (1540-1596) returns from circumnavigating the world

1587 - Mary Queen of Scots (Mary Stuart) (1542-1587) is executed by Elizabeth I for high treason

1588 - Victory against the Spanish Armada

1600 - foundation of the East India Company with commercial letter; later permanent branches in India

1603 - James VI (1566-1625) of Scotland also ascends the English throne as James I in personal union; Kingdoms remain formally independent

1605 - Guy Fawkes (1570-1606) attempts to blow up Parliament

1620 - Pilgrim Fathers sail to America on the Mayflower, colonization since 1607

from 1632 - colonization of the Caribbean

1639-1651 - Wars of the Kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland

1642-1649 - civil war between royalists and round heads

Sir Isaac Newton (1643-1727) English naturalist

1649-1653 - proclamation of a republic; Protectorate under Oliver Cromwell (1599-1658), leader of the parliamentary army in the civil war against the absolutist aspirations of the monarchy; Execution of King Charles (1600-1649)

Henry Purcell (1659-1695) English composer

1660 - King Charles II (1630-1685) reinstates the monarchy

1665 - plague in London

1666 - Great Fire in London

from 1664 - establishment of British West Africa

from 1672 - supply of the British colonies with slaves from Africa

1689 - English Bill of Rights: Division of power between the monarchy and parliament

1707 - Act of Union: Union of Scotland and England to form the Kingdom of Great Britain; Dissolution of the Scottish Parliament

1714 - British throne falls to the Guelph Georg from the House of Hanover (1660-1727); Personal union

1721-1742 - Sir Robert Walpole (1676-1745) first Prime Minister; Strengthening parliamentary democracy through a cabinet

James Cook (1728-1779), English navigator; from 1768 trips to the South Seas

James Watt (1736-1819), Scottish explorer; 1775 Invention of the steam engine

1756-1763 - Seven Years War; Great Britain wins all French colonies in North America as well as territories in Africa and India

from 1763 - colonies in Canada

from 1770 - Australia becomes British possession

Sir Walter Scott (1771-1832) Scottish national poet

Jane Austen (1775-1817) English author (Sense and Sensibility, Pride and Prejudice, Mansfield Park, Emma, ​​Northanger Abbey, Persuasion)

1776 - 13 British colonies in America declare their independence from Great Britain

Michael Faraday (1791-1867), English experimental physicist, basic research for the electrical industry

1792-1815 - French Revolutionary Wars, Napoleonic Wars

1800 - Act of Union: Ireland is attached to the Kingdom of Great Britain. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland is created.

1805 - Battle of Trafalgar: Lord Nelson (1758-1805) defeated Napoleon on the HMS Victory before he was killed himself

Isambard Kingdom Brunel (1806-1859), English engineer, building the Great Western Railway from 1833

1807 - Prohibition of the slave trade

Charles Darwin (1809-1882) English naturalist

Charles Dickens (1812-1870) English author (Oliver Twist, David Copperfield, Great Expectations)

1815 - Battle of Waterloo: Duke of Wellington (1769-1852) defeated Napoleon

Charlotte Brontё (1816-1855), English author (Jane Eyre)

Emily Brontё (1818-1848) English author (Wuthering Hights)

Florence Nightingale (1820-1910), English nurse, reformed nursing in Great Britain and British India

James Clerk Maxwell (1831-1879) Scottish physicist, Maxwell's equations and first color photography

1833 - Takeover of the Falkland Islands

1837 - QueenVictoria (1819-1901) takes the throne; End of personal union; Throne of Hanover goes to Ernst August

1840 - marriage of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg (1819-1861)

1840 - New Zealand is annexed

1840-1842 - First Opium War

1841 - Hong Kong becomes a crown colony

Alexander Graham Bell (1847-1922), further development of the telephone from 1873

1851 - World Exhibition in London

1854-1856 - Crimean War against Russia

1856-1860 - Second Opium War

1857 - Great Indian uprising leads to the dissolution of the East India Company

Sir Edgar Elgar (1857-1934) English composer (Pomp and Circumstances Marches)

from 1858 - establishment of British India

Conan Doyle (1859-1930) English writer (Sherlock Holmes)

Edgar Wallace (1875-1932) English detective writer

1877 - Queen Victoria becomes Empress of India

Sir Alexander Fleming (1881-1955), Scottish bacteriologist, discovered the antibiotic penicillin from 1928

1882 - Egypt becomes British possession

A.A. Milne (1882-1956) English author (Winnie-the-Pooh)

T. E. Lawrence (1888-1932), known as Lawrence of Arabia, Welsh archaeologist, British agent and writer, involved in the uprising of the Arabs against the Ottoman Empire

Sir Charles Chaplin (1889-1977), known as Charlie Chaplin, English comedian and film legend

Agatha Christie (1890-1976), English detective writer

J.R.R. Tolkien (1892-1973) British writer (Lord of the Rings)

1898-1902 - Boer Wars; South Africa falls to Great Britain

from 1895 - establishment of British East Africa

1901-1910 - King Edward VII (1841-1910) from the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha on the British throne

1903-1928 - Suffragettes demonstrate for women's suffrage; Emmeline Pankhurst founds Women's Social and Political Union

1908 - Summer Olympic Games

Ian Fleming (1908-1964) English writer (James Bond)

1910-1936 - George V (1865-1936) renounces German titles; proclaimed House of Windsor for all descendants of Queen Victoria

1912-1921 - Anglo-Irish War

1914-1918 - First World War

1918 - Universal suffrage, not for women under 30 years of age

Benjamin Britten (1919-1776), English composer and conductor

1921 - Formation of the Irish Free State and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

Michael Bond (1926-present) English author (Paddington Bear)

1927 - Foundation of the BBC

1832-1898 - Charles Lutwidge Dodgson (pseudonym: Lewis Carroll), English author (Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland)

1860-1937 - Sir James Matthew Barrie, Scottish author (Peter Pan)

1899-1996 - Pamela Lyndon Travers -English author (Mary Poppins)

1936 - Edward VIII (1894-1972) abdicates after a few months on the throne, marries the twice divorced Wallis Simpson

1936-1952 - George VI (1895-1952) succeeds his brother

1939-1945 - World War II

1940-1945; 1951-1955 - Winston Churchill (1874-1965) (Conservatives) is prime minister

1940 - German bombing of England (London Blitz, The Blitz)

1941 - Churchill signs Atlantic Charter

1942 - British Air Force bombs German targets

(1942-present) - Stephen Hawking, British astrophysicist

1945 - start of decolonization worldwide

1946/1948 - foundation National Health Service (NHS)

1947/48 - India and Pakistan become independent

1948 - London Summer Olympics

1949 - Establishment of the Republic of Ireland

1952/53 - Elizabeth II (1926-present) becomes Queen

1956 - Suez Crisis after the nationalization of the Suez Canal Society by Egypt

1961 - South Africa becomes independent

1963 - The great mail train robbery

1963 - The Beatles storm the charts

1965 - Abolition of the death penalty

Joan K. Rowling (1965-present), English author (Harry Potter)

1969-1998 - Northern Ireland Conflict (The Troubles) between the Unionist Protestants and the Irish Nationalist Catholics; partly armed guerrilla warfare, terrorist attacks by Irish Republican Army (IRA), later Provisional IRA (PIRA)

1973 - Joined the European Economic Community

1979-1990 - Margaret Thatcher (1925-present) (Conservatives), The Iron Lady, is Prime Minister; Privatization of numerous state-owned companies

1981 - Prince Charles (1948-present) marries Lady Diana Spencer (1961-1997)

1982 - Falklands War against Argentina

1990-1997 - Sir John Major (1943-present) (Conservatives) is prime minister

1990 - opening of the canal tunnel

1997 - Hong Kong falls back to China as the last crown colony

1997-2007 - Tony Blair (1953-present) (Labor) is prime minister

1998 - Good Friday Agreement ends conflict in Northern Ireland

1999 - foundation Welsh National Assembly and Scottish Parliament

2005 - Islamist terrorist attacks on London Underground and public buses

2007 - British Army withdraws from Northern Ireland after almost 40 years

2007-2010 - Gordon Brown (1951-present) (Labor) is prime minister

2010-present - David Cameron (1966-present) (Conservatives) is prime minister

2011 - Prince William (1982-present) marries Catherine Middleton (1982-present)

2012 - Queen Elizabeth's 60th anniversary of the throne

2012 - London Summer Olympics