Which is genetically the most Slavic country
based on the percentage shares x being assigned to the individual allele frequencies and haplotypes. Furthermore, the normalization condition
1 Home Navigation Imprint Letters to the Editor Contact Guest Book Population Genetics The entropy of the blood group systems enables us to understand the migration movements of Homo sapiens, whereby we can rely on the fact that it increases in the direction of metropolitan areas and remains persistently low in isolates. Peoples that have always been on the move in the course of their emergence have been much less exposed to inbreeding than those that have hardly experienced genetic exchange and therefore have a higher life expectancy than the so-called persistent groups, in which child mortality is already very high. Because nomadic peoples are always more mixed than sedentary peoples, their entropy, i.e. the diversity among them, is demonstrably greater, which can be clearly seen in the blood group systems as well as in the haplogroup distributions. In order to be able to study the genetic disorder of a people, objective comparative characteristics are required. Any genetic polymorphisms can be used for this, both of the mitochondrial Eve and Adam of the Y chromosome as well as those of blood group systems. Hardly any other substance in the human body has been investigated as well as our blood, and hardly any of its constituents have been subjected to more extensive measurements than the blood group systems. To determine the entropy of mixing of the human races, 42 selected erythrocytic, serum protein and enzyme polymorphisms were examined with regard to their geographical distribution. The calculations were based on Boltzmann's formula S k n i 1 x i ln x i, with the percentages x i being assigned to the individual allele frequencies and haplotypes. Furthermore, the normalization condition n x i i 1 1 must apply. The Boltzmann constant k was set equal to one because it does not matter from a relative point of view. Basically, populations with a low entropy of mixing are still in a largely pure and original state and should therefore be located at the beginning of the family tree, while those with a high entropy are at the end of the family tree. Because the entropy increases with the age of the race, there is also the strongest intermingling among the oldest races. Since we often use the term racial age in the following, we must first define it if we want to achieve a clear understanding. If one relates the racial 1
2nd to the period of origin of Homo sapiens, then the so-called old layer is one of the youngest races because, although it has the older genes, it has only gone through a few haplogroups since its formation. Conversely, the younger haplogroups correspond to the oldest populations. If one now chooses the present as the reference point for the racial age, then haplogroups at the end of the family tree would belong to younger races, which immediately leads to a contradiction. We therefore use the opposite definition, which assigns populations with greater entropy of mixing to a higher age, especially since the entropy is a function of time, which in the case of maximum purity is minimal, if not zero. The carriers of old haplogroups that still exist today are therefore also the youngest representatives of Homo sapiens, while the older ones have mutated much more often and belong to younger haplogroups. The youngest races, in which the entropy is also the lowest, consequently all still carry the so-called presapiens alleles, i.e. the basic genetic makeup with which Homo sapiens first appeared. Mutations, such as blood group alleles, are known to increase entropy; consequently, in the oldest races, the older alleles have decreased the most through selection. According to this view, the Australids are the youngest race, followed by the Papuans in New Guinea, the Eskimids of the polar regions and the Micronesians of the Pacific (see Table 8). Nonetheless, we all descend from a common ancestor from whom the Australids split off first, without it being possible to conclude that they were our direct ancestors, because there are at least dark years between the last African and the first Europid. At the same time, the original home of man is to be found where we find the oldest haplogroups or where the entropy is lowest, and this is undisputedly Australia with its neighboring island New Guinea. Africa is already so mixed that it can hardly be considered the original home of Homo sapiens. In addition, the first person was clearly Europid, and not negligent, whatever the common doctrine may object to. When the first Europid was already living in Southeast Asia, the Negrid did not even exist. The kinship with the Neanderthals also provides a striking indication of this, which God knows did not have a negative appearance. Presumably, Neanderthals and Homo sapiens separated from each other at some point between the first appearance of the microcephalin gene and the emergence of haplogroup D. Only in this way can the existence of this gene in humans be satisfactorily explained. In Table 1, the entropy of mixing from 42 polymorphic blood group systems was calculated averaged over the respective continent, which represents a measure of the purity of the population living there and thus allows conclusions to be drawn about their age. This comparison is permissible if one is aware that mutations are only a matter of chance and that selection mechanisms have the same effect all over the world. Even if there are different values in individual cases depending on the blood group system, the reasons for this are on average the same for all peoples. The oldest continent is Africa followed by Asia, with Europe just behind. America, which is only slightly older than Oceania, and the Inuit people follow at a considerable distance. The youngest are New Guinea and Australia, where at the same time one of the oldest haplogroups of Y-Adam, haplogroup C, occurs. 2
3 Table 2 shows the mean entropy of Europe, formed from a total of 34 blood group systems, broken down into individual regions and population groups. First of all, it is noticeable that the Basques have the highest entropy value and therefore represent the oldest population in Europe. They are also by far the oldest people in the world. This is all the more astonishing as their other extreme, the immediately neighboring Western Europeans, have the lowest entropy value in Europe, i.e. represent the youngest population there. The rest of the European regions follow in the order of age of the race, first Western Europe, from where the colonization of Europe was initiated, then Eastern, Central, Southern and Northern Europe.
4 The Roma do not belong to this group, as they come from India according to their origins and only infiltrated Europe relatively late. The affiliation of the Sami, which are also of Asian origin, can also be disputed, since their haplogroups extend as far as distant Siberia. The Sami influence is also the reason that Northern Europe is the most mixed of all European populations. The Fennoscandians are also presumably of Uralic origin, as there is absolutely no population in Europe that has not immigrated from Asia at some point. That is, marriage to the Indo-Europeans, who brought haplogroup H with them, 4
5 broke over the western foothills of the Eurasian continent, Mesopotamian (haplogroup J), Uralic (haplogroup U) and Dené-Caucasian peoples (haplogroup I) already lived on European soil. In all of Europe, except for the seeds, the haplogroup H is at the fore in the mitochondrial Eve system. All Indo-Europeans descend on their mother's side from this great Eva, who was given the name Helena. Their representatives speak Indo-European as well as Afro-Asian languages. The Finns are almost the only representatives of the haplogroup V, which is closely related to H, and the much older Ugric haplogroup U is still very common in Europe and takes on impressive values among Sami, Turks and Kurds. The latter characterizes the black-haired, dark-eyed Europeans and begins in the Urals. Their occurrence, however, extends to the Europid populations, because their representatives speak the Finno-Ugric and Uralic languages. Only one offshoot of U is the haplogroup K, which comes from the Caucasus. In the system of Adam of the Y chromosome, the haplogroup R1b of the Kentum speakers clearly dominates in Western Europe, which is distributed among Celts and Romans. R1b is the most common haplogroup in Central Europe as well. It is definitely of Indo-European origin and therefore one of the youngest haplogroups at the moment. At the same time, the influence of other haplogroups in Western Europe is extremely small, especially Fennoscan shares are hardly represented in terms of percentage. In Eastern Europe, on the other hand, the Scythoslav haplogroup R1a has prevailed, as the Germanic tribes largely emptied this area during the migration of the peoples. Central Europe, on the other hand, is not as strongly mixed as southern Europe, and southern Europe less strongly than northern Europe. The genetic composition only changed when, in the course of the migration from the north, Fennoscandic population groups, which were still at a lower cultural level, advanced southwards. Parts of these Nordic mammoth hunters, also called Vikings or Normans since late antiquity, mixed with the Celts in Central Europe and probably adopted the Indo-European language from them, because the Germanic languages are among the Centum languages, which are more recent than the Urals, which are the Germans spoke before and which the Finns still speak today. Similar to the Teutons in Central Europe, the Celtic, the Finno-Ugrians in the Balkans adopted the language of the Slavs there. The Scythians who followed the Celts and who only arrived in Eastern Europe at the end of antiquity, are among the Satem speakers. In the south of Europe we can still find remnants of the Berber peoples of haplogroup E, who came over from North Africa before the last Ice Age. The north, on the other hand, gave Europe the tall, blond and blue-eyed mammoth hunters of haplogroup I. The latter were the bearers of the so-called battle-ax culture and populated Scandinavia and Illyria long before the Slavs who immigrated after them or the Celto-Romans pushed before them. The predominant haplogroup I in Northern Europe of the Fennoskandians, who split off from the Weddids of Hinterindiens (haplogroup F), is most pronounced among the Finns. The seeds, on the other hand, are even more mixed than the rest of Northern Europeans and therefore older. In the system of Y-Adam they have the haplogroup N. Finally, the Sardinians, probably the indigenous population of southern Europe, rank ahead of the Sami in terms of their entropy. So we see that it is not just the isolation of a population that is important
6 preserves its degree of purity, but primarily a low genetic age is responsible for it. In addition to the blood group polymorphisms, the entropies of mixing were calculated using the haplogroup distributions; the results are sorted in table 3 in ascending order. The color red corresponds to the haplogroup R1b, yellow to the haplogroup R1a, pink I, white G and blue E, the main haplogroups in Europe. The haplogroups of the Y-Adam were examined in 40 European and Mediterranean countries, based on the latest surveys. However, caution should be exercised when using these data, as they do not agree with the McDonald’s results from 2005, which extend to the beginning of the modern era. For example, haplogroup N of the Sami is completely missing in the list, and the migration of peoples should have left its mark on haplogroup I in the south-western European countries as well. The corresponding proportions of haplogroup J, which originate from Jews resettled by the Romans, are also measured, so that we can only derive very rough clues from the resulting analysis. But we can see that the entropy increases from west to east as well as from north to south. The greatest intermingling consequently did not take place in the extreme west, because movement always takes place in a metropolitan area and never out of it. In Europe and the Mediterranean region, however, metropolitan areas are northern Africa, Asia Minor and the Balkans. According to these surveys, the least mixed countries are the Basque Country and the far west states or regions of Wales, Ireland, Portugal, Scotland, the Netherlands and Spain. With them we find predominantly or almost exclusively the haplogroup R1b of the Keltiberians. In almost all of these countries the Finno-Ugrian haplogroup I is either not represented at all or only to a very limited extent. Other Celtic dominated countries are England, Belgium, the Czech Republic, France, Italy, Denmark, Bulgaria, Switzerland, Norway and Germany. Of these, the leading countries are only slightly mixed with Slavs, the only exceptions being Spain, Portugal, France and Switzerland, to which more Berber elements are added. Italy, Norway and Germany are instead interspersed with Finno-Ugric, with Norway having the strongest Finnish influence. It is particularly noticeable that Germany, which was wrongly always considered to be particularly pure, has the highest degree of intermingling among all European countries. In the Slavic dominated countries of haplogroup R1a, Latvia ranks ahead of Lithuania, Poland, Slovenia, Ukraine, Hungary, Russia and Estonia. Among these, Poland is the most Slavic country. The countries of Latvia, Poland, Hungary and Russia tend towards a more Celtic mixture, Lithuania, Estonia and the Ukraine to a more Finno-Ugric one, and Slovenia to a more Berber one. The Finno-Ugric countries are led by Finland, followed by Bosnia, Sweden, Serbia, Croatia, Macedonia and Albania. Of these, Finland, Sweden, Bosnia, Croatia and Albania are mixed Slavs, while Serbia and Macedonia are Berber. Incidentally, Macedonia has the highest Semitic proportions within Europe, although these can never even take second place. 6th
7 Beside Slovenia, also Romania, Greece and Bulgaria are Berber peoples, whereby Bulgaria is most strongly mixed with Celtic, Romania, on the other hand, mainly Slavic. The main Berber countries in North Africa are Morocco, Tunisia and Algeria, which are also heavily mixed with Armenians. The North African countries also have shares of Indian origin (haplogroup F), although it is not said that F must also have originated in India. The Armenian haplogroup G dominates in Armenia, followed by Georgia and Turkey. Georgia and Turkey are also strongly Celtic, which comes from earlier immigrant groups such as the Galatians, while Armenia is more Scythian. In Turkey, Georgia and Armenia we also find significant proportions of Papuan-Guinean ancestry.
8 Table 4 shows the entropies of mixing of the African continent broken down regionally according to blood group systems. In terms of overall entropy, Africa is well ahead of Europe, but not all of its sub-regions. In any case, North Africa, which raises the south in total, must be excluded from this consideration. We encounter sub-Saharan Africa relatively unmixed, with only a few haplogroups, both in the mitochondrial Eve and in the Adam of the Y chromosome (see Table 8). The oldest tangible haplogroup of mitochondrial Eve, from which the Ethiopids of haplogroup L3 and later the Malayids of haplogroup M branch off, is the predecessor haplogroup of the australian haplogroup N, which is unfortunately extinct today, because Homo sapiens has no roots, but goes seamlessly, as also, by the way the Neanderthal man, emerging from Homo erectus. The Bambutids split off before that, and the Khoisanids even earlier. Nevertheless, Sub-Saharan Africa is more mixed up and therefore much older than Australia or New Guinea, i.e. the present-day Negrids can actually only have immigrated to Africa, one could even say that not one of the originally European population of Africa has survived the times. In terms of its allele frequency gradients, the black continent does not behave any differently than Europe, which was also settled from Asia. Between Southeast Asia and Europe there is only northeast Africa, with high proportions of the Berber haplogroup E3b, which corresponds to the Ethiopian haplogroup L3 on the mother's side. Apart from the marginal group of Roma, North Africa is in any case older than West Asia, while the parts south of the Sahara and Northeast Africa are significantly younger. There is even some evidence that North Africa was settled from Asia, because Black Africa has too high entropy differences and even has an even lower entropy than all European regions.So it must be racially very young, whereas North Africa is one of the oldest habitats of mankind, only closely followed by the Sardinians of the Mediterranean area, but by far older than northeastern Africa. Despite its strong ethnic mix, the latter is still purer and therefore younger than Western Europe. The cradle of mankind is probably in today's Sahara, which was still green at the time and shows the oldest traces of human presence. However, it was not Negrids who lived there, but rather early Europids. In contrast to Europe, Asia (see Table 5) has the least mixed peoples in the north, which in terms of genetic purity can even be compared with sub-Saharan Africa. From there, the spread of Homo sapiens followed the increase in entropy, on the one hand in the direction of East Asia and then on to Southeast Asia, on the other hand in the direction of America, which can be clearly seen in the distribution of the haplogroups O and N. Presumably, humans even returned to Asia via North America, since the entropy in all of America is lower than anywhere else in Asia. In the system of the Adam of the Y chromosome, the australid haplogroup C is the most common in North Asia with a slightly higher entropy than in North America. The second most common is the haplogroup N, the sister haplogroup to O. It is the later cold mutation of O and characterizes the Tungids and their ancestors, the Paleosiberians. The main focus of their expansion lies with the Yakuts, their most important representatives, the Nenetes and Sa- 8
9 men along the tundra to northern Europe. Both haplogroup O and haplogroup N enjoy lighter skin tones. In the system of the mitochondrial Eve in North Asia, in addition to D, the palaemongolid haplogroup C, which can be classified at the same time, appears more strongly, which arose in the tungusically speaking Evenks. It was carried from there to the furthest corners of South America. Another Mongolian haplogroup is G, which must have had an evolutionary advantage in arctic regions and which arose among the Itelmen on the Kamchatka. Sub-Saharan Northeast North AB0 0.910 0.853 0.951 ABH 0.691 0.691 0.692 MNSs 1.236 1.206 1.261 Rhesus 1.068 1.288 1.333 P 0.602 0.667 0.690 Kell 0.042 0.110 0.181 Duffy 0.219 0.436 0.583 Duffy Subtypes 0.378 0.767 1.023 Kidd 0.548 0.618 0.685 Diego 0.000 0.000 0.683 0.675 0.681 HP Subtypes 0.985 0.899 1.028 GC 0.316 0.410 0.386 GC Subtypes 0.782 1.048 1.006 TF 0.176 0.014 0.056 TF Subtypes 0.489 0.778 0.646 PI 0.203 0.147 0.078 PI Subtypes 0.384 0.961 GM 1.069 1.273 1.164 KM 0.655 0.624 0.584 ACP1 0.646 0.248 0.542 PG14 0.509 0.645 PGM1 Subtypes 0.865 AK1 0.065 0.069 0.082 ADA 0.026 0.305 ESD 0.269 0.560 GLO1 0.613 0.678 GPT 0.428 0.689 PGD 0.207 0.355 0.274 G-6-PD 0.385 0.047 0.177 HB 0.344 0.000 0.082 THAL 0.090 0.117 0.121 0.492 0.525 0.583 Table 4: Entropy of Africa's 9th blood group systems
10 At a greater distance follow East and Southeast Asia, which despite their ethnic diversity are still purer than the purest people of Europe. From a genealogical point of view, East and Southeast Asia are evidently younger than West and South Asia, which in turn can only mean that the Mongolid race arose after the white one. In East and Southeast Asia, the haplogroup O is also predominant in Adam on the Y chromosome. Its center is in the Philippines, which is explained by its proximity to the Papuan haplogroup K, from which it emerged together with N. It should have originated at the same time as the haplogroup R of the mitochondrial Eve, which also comes from the Austronesian region. The Chinese branch off from the Malayids, but are older for their part. In addition, the Sino-Tibetan haplogroup D, which branches off directly from the presapiens, plays a more significant role in the East Asian region. On the Eve side, Southeast Asia is dominated by the oldest haplogroup M there, from which the sinid haplogroup D emerged in China.
11 South Asia is even more disordered, where the Dravidian haplogroup L predominates, while haplogroup M takes the first place on the Evas side. West Asia, on the other hand, is led by the Semitic haplogroup J, to which the Ugric haplogroup U belongs on the Evas side. In Western Asia we also have most of the entropy maxima in relation to the blood group systems. West and South Asia, where humans stayed very early, show the same degree of ethnic intermingling on this continent, over which whole population storms roared. With the exception of the Roma, the oldest inhabitants of Asia also live there, but both regions do not come close to North Africa in terms of entropy. The Roma have gotten around the farthest and more intermingled than their Indian relatives. Remarkably, its representatives living in Europe are placed just behind the Basques in terms of entropy, making them the second oldest ethnic group in the world. For widely migrated and infiltrated peoples, however, other aspects apply, so that they cannot be directly compared with groups settled over a large area. The populations of both Americas are also young. The oldest inhabitants of the American double continent can be found in North America, which is also home to the most European-looking Indianids. The oldest North American Indian is still younger than any black African and just as old as a North Asian, which suggests a close genetic relationship. In terms of entropy, the natives of North America also have the most numerous frequency maxima in the blood group systems, the Canadian Inuit the fewest. The North American Indians are most closely related to the Maoris, who lead the family tree in Oceania and probably settled from America from the Pacific. Finally, Central America forms the border between Indianids and Eskimids and is characterized by strong Mongolian inserts. In the far north of Canada, Alaska and Greenland, the apparently youngest breed is the Inuit (see Table 6), whereby the Greenland Inuit are the older, so they must have immigrated earlier. The oldest eskimid substrate is found in North America, followed by Central America. All Indianids in North America are descended from the Inuit on the mother's side. In spite of the crease in the eyelid, which incidentally also occurs in the oldest Africans, the Khoisanids, the europid element clearly predominates, as can be seen from the extremely narrow, long-headed shape. In the system of mitochondrial Eve, they are to be assigned to the Na-Denean haplogroup A, which arises directly from N. In the system of the Adam of the Y chromosome, we find the Eskimids predominantly and almost exclusively the haplogroup Q among the Indianids, which in turn branches off from the haplogroup P, which is hardly to be found today, which is hung directly under the Papua New Guinea. Q and R, which the latter is the forerunner haplogroup of the Indo-Europeans, can only have separated from one another with the Kyrgyz, Uzbeks or Uighurs. The split into Turanide and Indianide took place deep in the heart of Asia, more precisely in the Turan Basin. According to today's reading, America was opened up in several waves. North America was first settled by members of haplogroup A, followed by two later waves of immigrants from the Mongolian haplogroups C and D. It follows Central America and finally, especially on the west coast and probably from Polynesia, South America and California by haplogroup B. In the area of this latest haplogroup are more striking- 11
12 wise the Indian civilizations settled. The europide haplogroup B is also culturally leading in the entire Far East, in China and Japan. Table 7 allows us to immediately draw direct conclusions about the development of the Pacific. This begins in Australia, continues via New Guinea to Micronesia, from there to Melanesia, finally to Polynesia and finally reaches New Zealand. Most blood group systems have their entropy maximum under the Maoris. Historically, New Zealand was also the last to be settled, from Raritonga. Thus, the Maori people are the first inhabitants of Oceania. The latter are followed by the Polynesians in terms of age, and then by the Melanesians. Finally, Micronesia forms the bridge to Papua-12
13 New Guinea. By far the purest and youngest race on the planet, the Australian aborigines, who have hardly mixed since the emergence of Homo sapiens and who also have the oldest genes, come last. The praesapia alleles are still the most common among them. Genetically, they are even older than blood group AB or the negative Rh factor. They split off from the Weddids even earlier than the rest of the Polynesians. In the system of the Adam of the Y chromosome, the haplogroup M of the Melanesids branches off from the Papuan haplogroup K, which is only found in Papua New Guinea, Melanesia and Micronesia, i.e. exclusively among the Europeans
14 treads of Southeast Asia. Within the mitochondrial Eve, these have the haplogroup Q, a side branch of the Malayids. The Polynesians are followed by the remaining semi-Europeans, who belong to the Australian haplogroup C on the paternal side but establish their own haplogroup B on the maternal side, which outside Polynesia occurs more frequently only in East Asia and America. New Zealand, which is somewhat more mixed than the rest of Polynesia, is by far the oldest within Oceania. Table 8 summarizes the results again. First one recognizes that the most primitive languages correlate with the lowest entropy, the entropy increases with the linguistic complexity. English is thus the most primitive language in Europe, while Sanskrit is probably the most developed in India. This means that migration movements can also be tracked on the basis of increasing language entropy. Following the entropy gradient, humans migrated from Australia to New Guinea, the second oldest region on earth. The Eskimids sprang from the Australid in later times. Most of the Indianids of Central, South and North America emerged from them. Another branch took the route through Micronesia, Melanesia and Polynesia and eventually reached New Zealand. The spread of man therefore initially took place in a northerly direction. In North Asia, part of Homo sapiens turned around and turned towards East and Southeast Asia, finally in a wide arc across Central and West Asia to Europe, where Homo sapiens and Neanderthals met. Not all, however, had migrated from Papua New Guinea to North Asia; some had made their way west via Tibet and reached southern Africa. Some ethnic groups, such as the pygmies and Bushmen, had probably not even made the long journey to Australia, but stayed behind in Africa, and still others, who had acquired the Mongolian fold in Southeast Asia, such as the Khoisanids, had returned to Africa and had each other split off only later. From Southeast Asia, some Papuan-looking people also made their way to Northeast Africa. There the group separated. While some migrated to Western and Eastern Europe, others returned to India, presumably via Western Asia. Via the islands of the Mediterranean region (Sardinia) they reached North Africa, where humans began around three hundred thousand years ago. The first to arrive in Europe, the Sardinians and Basques, likely came from the Middle East. The Sami, in turn, immigrated to Europe from their North Asian homeland. In general, however, Scandinavia was settled more from Eastern Europe, with roads leading to the Baltic states on the one hand and the Balkans on the other. The ancestors of the Fennoscandians, on the other hand, come from India, where they separated from the Sinotibeans a good few years ago. The trace of the old European main haplogroup N can therefore be traced from Australia via Southeast Asia through the Turan Basin to the Caucasus and further to Egypt. The first Indo-European mutations then appear south of the Caspian Sea and in Eastern Anatolia, the haplogroups H and V, which can still be found in large proportions in Western, Central and Northern Europe, but do not belong to the oldest population there. Our route thus marks the exact migration movement of the fossil Homo sapiens, and it leads exclusively along the mountain ranges of the Himalayas and the subsequent Caucasus. While the main haplogroup N is found almost everywhere except Australia and China
15, significant remains of the Malayid main haplogroup M can still be found in India and Southeast Asia, which suggests that it occurs most frequently precisely where the greatest mixing has taken place within Asia. Because with it evolution over- 15
16 can take place at all, the entropy must decrease again after a temporary increase, but it never again reaches its old value. If the self-imposed intermixing did not exist, the genetic characteristics would diverge further, and the three main races of humans, the Europids, Mongolids and Negrids, might have developed into separate species in tens of thousands of years, which no longer interbreed with one another could. One of these species, namely the best adapted one, would certainly have survived if the others had become extinct. The more or less artificially enforced heterogenization not only counteracts natural selection, but also further reduces the probability of being able to pass on a selection advantage once achieved. Under these boundary conditions there can no longer be any higher development of the human being, whereas his regression has more and more serious effects, insofar as any improvement is denied the slightest chance of ever being able to prevail. The result is an increase in the poorly adapted. The heterogeneity increases more and more at the expense of the homogeneity, and with it the local natural inequality. Without natural equality, however, there can be no evolution, because what should a characteristic triumph over which it has not already triumphed? A gene can only surpass itself. 16
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