What do deep-sea fish eat

What all deep-sea fish have in common is that we know very little about them. Deep sea fish usually do not have German names. Hardly anyone has ever seen it. Sometimes the information about these fish is so sparse that even zoologists have difficulty finding reliable information besides the name.

When we make a poster, we first create a file with the information that we collect from various sources (often also from the Internet). Then we decide which of the pictures and information will be on the poster. The information that we reproduce here on our website is taken from this file. It was very time-consuming to collect this information - if someone is interested in one or the other animal, he or she may be happy about it, not having to do the same job again. The fish are sorted according to the depth in which they live.

The oceans offer 168 times as much space for life as the land surface of the earth. The average depth of the ocean floor is 4000 m. In the deep-sea trenches there are record depths of below 11000 m. The deep-sea zone below 1000 m takes up 75% of the ocean water and is by far the largest habitat on our planet. Animals were found to a depth of 10,700 m found: crustaceans, molluscs, corals, various worm-like animals, and unicellular organisms (foraminifera). Sunlight in the sea is only around 400 m deep, with the violet and blue wavelengths being the deepest.
Only a very faint glow can be seen underneath. At the latest from 1000 m it is absolute darkness.

Plants (algae) and many bacteria are dependent on visible light and can only live up to a depth of 200 m. There are no more light-dependent organisms below this. The animals of the deep sea feed on what falls from above (detritus, carrion), on plankton, or they eat each other. Often it is just a matter of size.

The temperature at a depth of 1000 m is constant at 5 ° C, regardless of the climatic region. At the ocean floor (4-5000 m) the temperature is only 1-2 ° C. The water at these depths is also twice as viscous (viscous) as at the surface. The pressure increases by 1 bar per 10 m depth.

At depths of up to 500 m, silver-gray and dark colors predominate. Red also looks black in the depths and is well suited as a camouflage color. In deeper layers, a matt black color is often used to prevent the light emitted by predatory fish from being reflected. In the deep sea, the luminous organs of many deep sea inhabitants are the only light sources. With the help of these lights, the fish find each other when choosing a partner, they attract prey or they illuminate the water in search of prey.

The lights of the deep-sea animals are mostly blue. Blue-green light goes furthest in water, and many organisms can only see blue light (470-490 nm). Few fish can also produce red light, a light that only they can see. This red light is almost infrared and barely visible to the human eye.

Argyropelecus affinis

 

 

Argyropelecus affinis

Silver arrow

Pacific hatchet fish

170 - 3872 m

Worldwide, mainly at 300-650 m

45 ° N - 45 ° S

Max.size: 8.4 cm SL

 

Hatchet fish feed on plankton and migrate to higher ones at night
Layers of water. They are particularly good with their telescopic eyes
adapted to the lack of light of the depth.
On the underside they have a multitude of luminous organs in front
all shine downwards. Hatchet fish live in depths where there is still enough
Light is present to be recognized from below as a dark shadow
become. By sending blue light (480 nm) down, they fill
this shadow with its own light.
If they went deeper, their light would again be too bright
and they would be easily recognized by their enemies.

 

 

Astronesthes cyaneus

 

Astronesthes cyaneus

120 - 800 m

Indo-West Pacific: Papua New Guinea and Indonesia

Max.size: 10.8 cm SL

20 ° N - 20 ° S

 

Melanostomias melanops

 

Melanostomias melanops

Atlantic: Gulf of Mexico, Caribbean Sea, and northern Atlantic between 35 ° N-8 ° N (not occurring in the southern Sargasso Sea); southwestern Atlantic between 10 ° S and 30 ° S. Also Indian and Pacific oceans.

Max.size: 25.7 cm SL

depth range - 950 m

36 ° NC

 

Paradiplospinus gracilis

 

Paradiplospinus gracilis

Slender escolar

Southeast Atlantic: known only from off Namibia and western South Africa.

Max. Size: 52.0 cm SL

368 - 626 m

17 ° S - 31 ° S

 

Neoscopelus macrolepidotus

 

Neoscopelus macrolepidotus

Large-scaled lantern fish

 

Large-scaled lantern fish

Eastern Atlantic: Morocco to Western Sahara; reported from Namibia. Western Atlantic: off Suriname and Nicaragua, and off southern Brazil. Indian Ocean: off Natal, South Africa and in the Great Australian Bight in the eastern side. Western Pacific: Australia. Eastern Pacific: British Columbia, Canada and the Hawaiian Is.

Max. Size: 25.0 cm SL

300 - 800 m

55 ° N - 35 ° S

Found over continental and island slopes. No evidence of vertical migrations.

 

The large-scaled lantern fish has a large number of
Luminous organs on the underside of the body also luminous organs on the
Tongue with which he lures his prey. The tongue shines so brightly
that it even shows through the cheeks.

 

Opisthoproctus soleatus

 

Opisthoproctus soleatus

High-eyed

Barrel-eye

Eastern Atlantic: western Ireland to Mauritania and from Sierra Leone to Angola. Also Indian and Pacific Oceans. Probably not exhibiting vertical migration. The limits of its distribution coincide with the 400 m-isotherm for 8 ° C

Max.size: 10.5 cm SL

300 - 800 m

51 ° NC

 

The high-gazer lives in the litter zone of the deep sea and feeds on
small, gelatinous animals (e.g. small jellyfish), which he from
can see below.

 

Scopelarchus analis

 

Scopelarchus analis

Small fin pearl eye

Short fin pearleye

Circumglobal in warm waters.

Adults have usually been taken in hauls to depths in excess of 500 m although they have also been captured at night in several hauls between 275 to 0 m. Larvae have been captured in hauls restricted to the upper 100 m and have been captured year-round throughout its range. Oviparous, with planktonic larvae. Synchronous hermaphrodites. Adults prey on other midwater fishes.

Max.size: 12.6 cm SL

deep-water

 

The larvae of the small-finned pearl-eye live above 100 m and
are caught all year round. The adult animals are
hermaphroditic and feed on small fish.

 

Coloconger raniceps

 

Coloconger raniceps

Froghead eel

Indo-West Pacific: East Africa ad Madagascar to the western Pacific, north to southern Japan.

Max.size: 50.0 cm TL

300 - 1134 m

 

Gonostoma elongatum

 

Gonostoma elongatum

Elongated bristle mouth fish

 

Elongated bristlemouth fish

Worldwide

Occur between 100-200 m and 500-800 m during the day and 25-600 m and 1250-1500 m at night. Feed on crustaceans and small fishes. Photophores develop in fishes over 6-22 mm SL. Protandric hermaphrodite, oviparous with planktonic eggs and larvae.

Max.size: 27.5 cm TL

25 - 3385 m

65 ° NC

 

The elongated bristle mouth fish initially lives planktonically as an egg and
as a larva. As soon as the animals grow larger than 1-2 cm, they form
Light organs off. At first the fish develop as males,
later they turn into females.
They grow to a length of 27 cm and feed on crustaceans and
small fish.

 

Rouleina livida

 

 

Rouleina livida

Tropical western Indo-Pacific

700-1200 m

 

Bathophilus ater

 

Bathophilus ater

South Atlantic, South Pacific

Max. Size: 15.0 cm SL

23 ° S - 45 ° S

deep-water

 

Nemichthys scolopaceus

 

 

Nemichthys scolopaceus

Slender snipe eel

 

Slender snipe eel

Worldwide in tropical and temperate seas

Max.size: 100.0 cm TL

91 - 2000 m

55 ° N - 42 ° S

Occur in midwater, usually below 400 m and occasionally in shallow water in the northern part of its range. Feed on crustaceans while swimming with its mouth open. Oviparous, with planktonic leptocephali. Degenerative changes in males and females suggest semelparity.

 

The slender snipe eel cannot have its beak-like jaws
close completely. He swims through the depths with his mouth open,
usually under 400 m, and catches crabs that settle in the barbs
Caught beak.

Cryptopsaras couesii

 

 

Cryptopsaras couesii

Tri-wart anglerfish

 

Triplewart seadevil

Tropical and subtropical parts of all oceans

Max.size: 7.3 cm TL, 44.0 cm TL (female)

0 - 2091 m

Males dwarfed, becoming parasitic on females. Maximum size of free-living males is 1.05 cm.

 

Like many frogfish, the anglerfish has great difficulties with
finding a partner. The females are up to 44 cm long. The males
as long as they swim freely, do not exceed 1 cm. As soon as
If they have found a female, they hang themselves as an external parasite
and can grow to a size of 7 cm.

 

Melanocetus johnsoni

 

 

Melanocetus johnsoni

Hunchback frogfish

 

Humpback anglerfish

Tropical to temperate parts of all oceans

Max. Size: 2.9 cm TL; 18.0 cm TL (female)

0 - 2091 m

Males dwarfed and non-parasitic. Caught with plankton nets. Larvae are found primarily in upper 100 m. Oviparous, with planktonic larvae. Eggs are presumably contained in floating gelatinous rafts.

 

Frogfish have very bright luminous organs on fish-like ones
Appendages that they use as bait to attract prey.
The fishing rod is made to glow by special bacteria that
live in symbiosis with the frogfish. In the impressive trap
there is no waiting for the curious fish and crabs
Escape. The male of the hunchback frogfish will not
larger than 3 cm.

 

Scopeloberyx robustus

 

Scopeloberyx robustus

Longjaw bigscale

All oceans except the Arctic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea

Max.size: 7.3 cm SL

340 - 1200 m

 

Talismania longifilis

 

Talismania longifilis

East Atlantic, Indo-West Pacific

750 - 1550 m

23 ° NC

Max.size: 46.3 cm SL

 

Gigantura chuni

 

 

Gigantura chuni

Gigantura

Atlantic, Indian and Pacific: mainly in tropical areas.

Max.size: 15.6 cm SL

deep-water

 

Serrivomer sector

 

 

Serrivomer sector

Sawtooth eel

Sawtooth eel

Western Pacific: Japan. Eastern Pacific: California, USA to Chile

Feeds primarily on crustaceans, and to a lesser extent upon small cephalopods and fishes.

Max.size: 76.0 cm TL

300 - 1800 m

 

The sawtooth eel feeds mainly on crustaceans, small ones
Cuttlefish and fish.

 

Malacosteus niger

 

 

Malacosteus niger

Black dragon fish

 

Stoplight loosejaw

Atlantic Ocean: between 66 ° N and 16 ° S, Indian Ocean: between 8 ° N and 32 ° S and in the Gulf of Aden and the eastern part of Bay of Bengal. Pacific Ocean: South China Sea and Indo-Australian Archipelago; also New Zealand, in the Pacific between 10 ° N-15 ° S, near the Hawaiian Is., off California at 33 ° N and along the coast of South America to 34 ° S; reported from British Columbia, Canada

Max.size: 21.6 cm SL

0 - 2500 m

66 ° N - 34 ° S

 

The black dragonfish feeds mainly on copepods
(small crabs). It is one of the few deep-sea fish that can red
Send out light and see too. How this happens has only just become
recently explored.
Malacosteus niger can do his with the help of red headlights
Seeing prey without being seen and without it
other predatory fish are attracted.
The photocells initially produce blue-green light that is emitted by
Pigments is absorbed again and reaches the filter with 626 nm.
There it is filtered again, and finally into the sea with 705 nm
sent out.
Like us, Malacosteus niger does not have visual pigments that are responsible for red light
are sensitive. The red light is first from a special one
Antenna pigment is absorbed by the photoreceptor cells in the form of energy
fed. There they can be sensitive to blue and green light
Visual pigments relay the information. The antenna pigment is that
Similar to chlorophyll of green plants and transforms like
plant chlorophyll light in energy.

 

Stomias longibarbatus

 

 

Stomias longibarbatus

Eastern Atlantic: Portugal south to Dem. Rep. Congo; Namibia to South Africa. Western Atlantic: USA to Gulf of Mexico; Brazil to Argentina. Western Pacific: Japan, Australia and New Zealand. Southeast Pacific: Chile. Indian Ocean.

Inhabits deep oceanic waters to more than 1,000 m depth

Max.size: 42.0 cm SL

deep-water

41 ° N - 40 ° S

 

Cyclothone microdon

 

 

Cyclothone microdon

Deep-sea minnow

 

Veiled anglemouth

Circumglobal

Max. Size: 7.6 cm TL

200 - 2700 m

67 ° N - 45 ° S

fisheries: of no interest

Doest not exhibit the vertical migrations. Feeds mainly on copepods. Protandrous, sex reversal observed in the eastern North Atlantic. Sex reversal at 22-24 mm SL.

 

The deep-sea minnow is the most common deep-sea fish in all of the world's oceans.
There are no more vertebrate species living on our planet. The
Fish feeds mainly on copepods and makes them themselves
Basic food for many predatory fish. The animals are first
male, and transform into
Female.

 

Winteria telescopa

 

 

Winteria telescopa

Eastern Atlantic: Gulf of Guinea. Western Pacific: Japan, Australia and New Zealand. Tropical Indian Ocean.

Max.size: 15.0 cm SL

400 - 2500 m

 

Anoplogaster cornuta

 

 

Anoplogaster cornuta

Fang

Common fangtooth

Worldwide in temperate and warm waters

Adults occur mainly between 500 and 2,000 m

Form schools, swim in small groups or solitary. Carnivorous.

Max.size: 15.2 cm SL

50 - 4900 m

65 ° N - 46 ° S

 

The fang has teeth so big that it doesn't close its mouth
can - he swallows his prey whole. Food: small
Fish, crustaceans and octopuses. When the fang is a prey
discovered, it simply opens its mouth - the prey is sucked in
and has little chance of escaping in the stubborn trap.

 

Idiacanthus fasciola

 

 

Idiacanthus fasciola

Ribbon saw-tail fish

North Atlantic: north of 10 ° N. South Atlantic: southern tip of Africa. Also recorded from the Patagonian region of Argentina. Indo-Pacific: across the Indian Ocean north of about 23 ° S to west and central Pacific between 27 ° N and 23 ° S.

Max.size: 48.9 cm SL

Females undergo diel vertical migrations

40 ° N - 54 ° S

Mesopelagic in depths exceeding 500 m

 

Affinite stomias

 

 

Affinite stomias

Günther's boafish

Eastern Atlantic: Mauritania south to Angola. Also across the Atlantic between 0 and 20 ° N, extending to 35 ° N and 39 ° S in the western part (USA to Argentina). So, Indian and Pacific oceans.

Some individuals may migrate to the surface at night.

Max.size: 21.9 cm SL

0 - 3182 m

35 ° NC

 

Stomias affinis sometimes also migrates to the at night
Water surface.

 

Scopelogadus mizolepis

 

Scopelogadus mizolepis

Indian and Atlantic: in tropical waters to 20-30 ° S. Western Pacific: Japan to Australia and New Zealand. Eastern Pacific: Chile.

Max.size: 9.4 cm SL

- 3385 m

40 ° N - 30 ° S

Bigscale

 

Coccorella atrata

 

 

Coccorella atrata

Indo-West Pacific: Bay of Bengal, Solomon Sea, New Zealand. Southeast Pacific: Chile.

deep-water

 

Cyclothone obscura

 

Cyclothone obscura

Circumtropical: Eastern and Western Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans.

Max.size: 6.6 cm SL

900 - 3000 m

No apparent vertical migration has been observed.

 

Bathypterois atricolor

 

Bathypterois atricolor

Attenuated Spider Fish

250-5150 m

Max.size: 20.4 cm SL

Circumglobal, excluding the western Atlantic

32 ° N - 22 ° S

 

 

 Eurypharynx pelecanoides

 

 

Eurypharynx pelecanoides

Pelican eel

Pelican eel

All temperate and tropical seas. Feed mainly on crustaceans, but also take fishes, cephalopods, and other invertebrates. Degenerative changes in males and females suggest semelparity.

Max.size: 100.0 cm TL

500 - 7500 m

harmless

 

The pelican eel is one of the most bizarre figures of the deep. His
Jaws are only loose with each other through an elastic membrane
connected. The eyes and brain are tiny.
With the help of its elastic throat pouch (like the pelican) the
Pelicanaal swallow animals that are bigger than himself. That
rarely occurs, however.

 

 

 Cyclothone acclinidens

 

 

Cyclothone acclinidens

Benttooth bristlemouth

Atlantic, Indian and Pacific: in tropical and subtropical waters. Southern Ocean: a single specimen recorded near Bouvet Island (56 ° 30'S, 14 ° 29'E).

3.6 cm SL; 6.5 cm SL (female)

50 - 1900 m

65 ° N - 57 ° S

Usually vertically oriented during the day. Nocturnal feeder on copepods.

 

 

 Cyclothone livida

 

 

Cyclothone livida

Eastern Atlantic: scattered records from the northern record of 60 ° N, 20 ° W to Angola.

Does not exhibit vertical migrations.

Max. Size: 3.6 cm SL; 5.0 cm SL (female)

300 - 2000 m

60 ° NC

 

 

 Cyclothone signata

 

Cyclothone signata

Showy bristlemouth

Eastern Pacific: Bering Sea, British Columbia (Canada) and Gulf of Panama. Reported from Chile. Indian Ocean.

Epi- and mesopelagic species, usually in upper 800 m depth with abundance maximum in upper 100 and 400-500 m.

Max. Size: 3.0 cm TL

0 - 800 m

 

 

 Melamphaes suborbitalis

 

Melamphaes suborbitalis

Ridgehead

North Atlantic: including 7 specimens recorded between about 18 ° and 29 ° N and 15 ° and 25 ° W. Southwest Pacific: New South Wales, Australia and New Zealand.

Max. Size: 10.0 cm SL

500 - 1000 m

Adults occur below 500 m.

 

 

Coelophrys brevicaudata

 

 

 Coelophrys brevicaudata

Gadella edelmanni

 

 

Gadella edelmanni

Lamprogrammus brunswigi

 

 

Lamprogrammus brunswigi

Ophtalmomolycus macrops

 

 

Ophtalmomolycus macrops